Defending the Truth and Counter Information Warfare in Europe

Open access


Information warfare has gained new valences, although some states have historical roots in developing subversive and manipulative tactics; the action pattern is supported today by the use of new information propagation vectors, access to new technologies, and a mix of themes with political, economic, military, cultural and social collective interest. The aim of the propaganda is that the aggressor demoralizes and minimizes the trust of citizens in domestic institutions and policies. Hypotheses and work themes are combined with false news, counterfeit media, capable of creating ambiguity. On such a media of open sources, non-kinetic threats and elements of the hybrid war manifest themselves in the information space and create the ambiguity much hoped to diminish the establishment that reflects the aggressor’s opposition. The study presents relevant cases and recommendations for members of the Euro-Atlantic community related to the management of Russian information actions.

[1] Frank G. Hoffman, Conflict in the 21st Century: The Rise of Hybrid Wars, VA: Potomac Institute for Policy Studies, Arlington, 2007, p. 38.

[2] Military Balance 2015, The Annual Assessment of Global Military Capabilities and Defence Economics, Chapter 1, Part III: Hybrid warfare: challenge and response, International Institute for Strategic Studies, p.97, 2015.

[3] Conceptual Views Regarding the Activities of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation in the Information Space (2011), available at

[4] Joseph S. Nye, Jr., Public Diplomacy and Soft Power, The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 616, Public Diplomacy in a Changing World, p. 94, Mar., 2008.

[5] Edward Lucas and Peter Pomeranzev, Winning the Information War Techniques and Counter-strategies to Russian Propaganda in Central and Eastern Europe, Center for European Policy Analysis, 2016,

[6] Intelligence Risk Assessment 2016, An Assessment of Developments Abroad Impacting on Danish Security, Copenhagen, Danish Defence Intelligence Service, p. 12, 2016,



[9] Katri Pynnöniemi & András Rácz (eds.), Fog of Falsehood Russian Strategy of Deception and the Conflict in Ukraine, Helsinki, The Finnish Institute of International Affairs, Grano Oy, p.33, 2016,

[10] http://bit.ly1uSMe01.

[11] Peter Pindják, Deterring hybrid warfare: a chance for NATO and the EU to work together? NATO Review, 2014,

Journal Information

Target Group researchers in the fields of political and financial law


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 140 136 5
PDF Downloads 103 102 6