Morphostructural, hydrogeological and hydrochemical approaches were applied to Hammamet plain and its surrounding mountains in the eastern part of Algeria to characterize the groundwater system and its potential for exploitation. The Essen and Troubia Mountains form the natural boundaries of Hammamet plain. The objective of this study is to utilize remote sensing techniques combined with structural analysis, hydrogeology and hydrogeochemistry to identify the potential fracture zones for groundwater in the strongly fractured and karstified deep aquifers. The delineated zones of potential groundwater resources are verified by detailed hydrogeological field surveys.
From a hydrogeological point of view, these two mountains, constitute a unit limited by faults oriented ENE-WSW, NNW-SSE and NNE-SSW. Specifically, fractures of the latter two directions influence the compartmentalization and the hydrogeological functioning of this unit. According to the degree of fracturing and/or karstification, two basic types of aquiferous behaviour have been distinguished: fissured aquifer (Essen Mountain and Troubia Mountain), and porous aquifer (Hammamet plain).
The study of the hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater samples shows that the majority of samples are mainly of HCO3− and Ca2+ water type. The ionic speciation and mineral dissolution/precipitation was calculated with the PHREEQC software. The chemical composition of the water is influenced by the dissolution and/or precipitation processes during the water–rock interaction and by the cationic exchange reactions between groundwater and alluvial sediments. The high content of CO2 in the water samples suggests that they circulate in a geochemical open system. The isotopic analysis of some groundwater samples shows a similarity with the meteoric waters, which reflect their short residence time and a low evaporation of the infiltrated water.
Araguas L.J., Diaz Teijeiro M.F. 2005. Isotope composition of precipitation and water vapour in the Iberian Peninsula: first results of the Spanish network of isotopes in precipitation. In: International atomic energy agency – isotopic composition of precipitation in the Mediterranean Basin in relation to air circulation patterns and climate. Vienna. IAEA-TECDOC-1453 p. 173–190.
Baghdadi M., Meddah R., Rais J., Nadem S., Afdali M. 2013. Evaluation of water quality in open channels flowing through Beni-Mellal City (Morocco). Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 19 p. 5–9.
Benrabah S., Attoui B., Hannouche M. 2016. Characterization of groundwater quality destined for drinking water supply of Khenchela City (eastern Algeria). Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 30 p. 13–20. DOI 10.1515/jwld-2016-0016.
Boussaha S., Laifa A. 2017. Wadi Bounamoussa’s waters quality in the north-east of Algeria: Statistical treatment of some physical and chemical parameters. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 34 p. 77–83. DOI 10.1515/jwld-2017-0040.
Caine J.S., Forster C.B. 1999. Fault zone architecture and fluid flow insights from field data and numerical modelling. American Geophysical Union. Geophysical Monogram Series. Vol. 113 p. 9–7. DOI 10.1029/GM113p0101.
Celle-Jeonatan H., Zouar K., Travi Y., Daoued A. 2001. Caractérisation isotopique des pluies en Tunisie. Essai de typologie dans la région de Sfax [Isotopic characterization of precipitations in Tunisia: Typology test in the region of Sfax]. Sciences de la Terre et des planètes / Earth and Planetary Sciences. Vol. 333 p. 625–631.
CGIARCSI undated. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), version 4 [online]. [Access 2.08.2016]. Available at: http://srtm.csi.cgiar.org/
Chelih F. 2012. Role and characteristics of the Turonian limestones in the alimentation of Plio Quaternary aquifer. Hammamet Tebessa. MSc Thesis. Tebessa University.
Craig H. 1961. Standard for representing concentrations of deuterium and oxygen-18 in natural waters. Science. Vol. 133 p. 1833–1834.
Derias T., Toubal A.C. 2010. Hydrodynamic characterization of a heterogeneous aquifer system or semi-arid climate. Example of the plain of Tebessa. Bulletin of the Geological Service of Algeria. Vol. 21(3) p. 361–372.
Djabri L. 1987. Contribution to the hydrogeological study of the subsidence plain of Tebessa NE Algeria. Attempt of modeling. PhD Thesis. University of Franche Comté, France.
Drever J.I. 1988. The geochemistry of natural waters. 2nd ed. Englewood Cliffs. Prentice-Hall. ISBN 0133513963 pp. 437.
Fehdi C., Belfar D., Baali F. 2015. Characterization of the main karst aquifers of the Tezbent Plateau, Tebessa Region, Northeast of Algeria, based on hydrogeochemical and isotopic data. Environmental Earth Sciences. Vol. 74. Iss. 1 p. 241–250. DOI 10.1007/s12665-015-4480-x.
Fehdi C., Rouabhia A., Baali F. 2008. The hydorogeochemical characterization of Morsott-El Aouinet aquifer, Northeastern Algeria. Environmental Geology. Vol. 58 p. 1611. DOI 10.1007/s00254-008-1667-4.
Heynekamp M.R., Goodwin L.B., Mozley P.S., Haneberg W.C. 1999. Controls on fault-zone architecture in poorly lithified sediments, Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico: Implications for fault-zone permeability and fluid flow, in faults and subsurface fluid flow in the Shallow Crust. In: Faults and subsurface fluid flow in the shallow crust. Eds. W.C. Haneberg, P.S. Mozley, J. Casey Moore, L.B. Goodwin. Geophysical Monograph Series. Vol. 113 p. 27–51.
Khan S.D., Glenn N. 2006. New strike slip faults and litho-units mapped in Chitral (N. Pakistan) using field and ASTER data yield regionally significant results. International Journal of Remote Sensing. Vol. 27. Iss. 2 p. 4495–4512.
Parkhurst D.L., Appelo C.A.J. 1999. User's guide to PHREEQC (version 2) – A computer program for speciation, batch-reaction, one-dimensional transport, and inverse geochemical calculations. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4259 pp. 312.
Piper A.M. 1944. A graphic procedure in the geochemical interpretation of water-analyses. Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union. Vol. 25 p. 914–928.
Rouabhia A.E.K., Baali F., Fehdi C. 2009. Impact of agricultural activity and lithology on groundwater quality in the Merdja area, Tebessa, Algeria. Arab Journal of Geosciences. Vol. 3(3) p. 307–318. DOI 10.1007/12517-009-0087-4.
Salameh E. 2001. Sources of water salinities in the Jordan Valley Area/Jordan. Acta Hydrochimica et Hydrobiologica. Vol. 29 p. 329–362.
Sayad L., Djabri L., Bouhsina S., Bertrand C., Hani A., Chaffai H. 2017. Hydrochemical study of Drean–Annaba aquifer system (NE Algeria). Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 34 p. 260–263. DOI 10.1515/jwld-2017-0061.
Simler R. 2007. Hydrochemistry multilanguage free distribution software. Version 4. Hydrogeology Laboratory of Avignon. Version 2.
Tumare J., Jana S.K., Pal D.K. 2014. Application of remote sensing and GIS for ground water potential zone investigation in Bulolo-Wau Surrounding Gold Mine, Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea. International Journal of Geoinformatics. Vol. 10. Iss. 4 p. 45–57.
The Journal of Polish Academy of Sciences Committee on Agronomic Sciences, Section of Land Reclamation and Environmental Engineering in Agriculture and Institute of Technology and Life Sciences in Falenty