Water erosion on marl slopes and prevention of its effects using conservation of water and soil systems in the Wadi Isser watershed – Algeria

Open access

Abstract

Water erosion remains a major concern on the marly slopes. Where erosive processes continue to increase and continue to pose serious problems and where knowledge is still insufficient on erodibility and its evolution and on solutions to soil erosion problems. The aim of this work is to contribute to the understanding of the functioning of soils on marl substrate in relation to erosion and to evaluate the effectiveness of the anti-erosion measures used in this type of environment. The Isser watershed, where several anti-erosion techniques were used, is the subject of this study. The analysis of the anti-erosion installations shows that most of the developments have been made according to standards and have worked well. But their effectiveness is different from one technique to another. The earthen thresholds seem to be the most suitable and the most effective. The effectiveness of earthen structures is summed up in stability, durability, cost-effectiveness, sediment storage, flood plating and water storage for a significant length of time, and had a positive impact on reducing erosion and the silting rate of the dam. The gabion thresholds also have a better stability and a good seating, but they are very sensitive and can undergo damage that reduces their effectiveness with regard to erosion. Dry stone thresholds are the least desirable and are often inadequate and inefficient in this type of terrain. A purely mechanical and/or biological vision in this type of environment is however insufficient, the mechanical arrangements associated with the biological developments are more effective.

Avenard J.-M. 1990. Dynamique érosive actuelle en Afrique du Nord [Current errossive dynamics in north Africa]. Revue de la Faculté des Lettres Tétouan. Vol. 14 p. 37–43.

Bouchelkia H., Belarbi F., Remini B. 2014. Quantification of suspended sediment load by double correlation in the watershed of Chellif (Algeria). Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 21 p. 39–46. DOI 10.2478/jwld-2014-0012.

Centro Studi e Ricerche 1974. Etude des bassins versants des Oueds Isser et Sikkak [Study of the of wadi Isser and Sikkak watersheds]. Alger. Secrétariat d'État aux forêts (SEFOR). 3rd vol. pp. 640.

Chebani R. 1996. Etude à différentes échelles des risques d'érosion dans le bassin versant de l’Isser [Study at different scales of risks of erosion in the Isser wadi watershed]. MSc Thesis. Alger. Institut National Agronomique pp. 135.

Collinet J., Zante P. 2002. Le ravinement sur marnes gypseuses en Tunisie semi-aride [Gulse marl gully eruption in semi-arid Tunisia]. Bulletin du Réseau Érosion. Vol. 21 p. 301–319.

Demmak A. 1982. Contribution à l’étude de l’érosion et des transports solides en Algérie [Contribution to the study of erosion and solid transport in Algeria]. Mémoires des sciences de la terre. Vol. 82. Iss. 28 pp. 323.

Deymier C. 1995. Conception et calcul de barrages de correction torrentielle [Design and calculation of torrential correction dams].Grenoble. CEMAGREF pp. 286.

Gomer D. 1992. Ecoulement et érosion dans des bassins versants à sols marneux sous climat semi-aride méditerranéen [Flow and erosion in water watershed with marly soils under semi-arid Mediterranean climate]. GTZ–ANRH pp. 207.

Habi M., Morsli B. 2010. Contraintes et perspectives des retenues collinaires dans le Nord-ouest algérien [Constraints and perspectives of hill dams in northwestern Algeria]. Sécheresse. Vol. 22. Iss. 1 p. 49–56.

Hadjiat K. 1997. Etat de la dégradation des sols en Algérie [State of land degradation in Algeria]. Rapport d’expertise, PNAE, Banque Mondiale, Washington DC pp. 45.

Hamoudi A., Morsli B., Roose E. 2006. Evaluation des méthodes classiques de défense et restauration des sols en Algérie [Evaluation of classical methods of defense and soil restoration in Algeria]. In: L’International Soil Conservation Organisation. Comptes rendus 14e conférence de l’ISCO. 14–19.05.2006 Marrakech).

Hudson N.W. 1991. A study of the reasons for success or failure of soil conservation projects. FAO Soil Bulletin. Vol. 64 pp. 65.

Kouri L., Vogt H., Gomer D. 1997. Analyse des processus d'érosion hydrique linéaire en terrain marneux, bassin de l'oued Mina, Tell Oranais, Algérie [Analysis of the processes of linear hydric erosion in marl land, Mina wadi watershed, Oranais Hill, Algeria]. ORSTOM Bulletin Réseau Érosion. Vol. 17 p. 64–73.

Meghraoui M., Habi M., Morsli B., Regagba M., Seladji A. 2017. Mapping of soil erodibility and assessment of soil losses using the RUSLE model in the Sebaa Chioukh Mountains (northwest of Algeria). Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 34 p. 205–213. DOI 10.1515/jwld-2017-0055.

Meunier M. 1992. L'érosion torrentielle dans la protection contre les risques naturels [Torrential erosion in the protection against natural risks]. Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement Marseille Cedex 02 p. 22–27.

Morsli B. 2015. Ruissellement et erosion: Analyse des facteurs conditionnels [Runoff and erosion: Conditional factor analysis]. PhD Thesis. Université de Tlemcen, Algérie pp. 180.

Morsli B., Habi M. 2014. Effet du comportement hydrodynamique des sols argileux sur les risques de ruissellement et d’érosion du sol: cas des sols des montagnes méditerranéennes de Beni-Chougrane-Algérie [Effect of the hydrodynamic behavior of clay soils on the risks of runoff and soil erosion: the case of the soils of the Mediterranean mountains of Beni-Chougrane-Algeria]. Revue Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie (ZFG Germany). Vol. 58. No. 4 pp. 22.

Morsli B., Malla R. 1995. Méthodologie et description de la dynamique du ravinement dans les monts de Beni chougrane [Methodology and description of gully dynamics in the Beni Chougrane Mountains]. Rapport. Alger. INRF pp. 10.

Morsli B., Mazour M., Mededjel N., Hamoudi A., Roose É. 2004. Influence de l’utilisation des terres sur les risques de ruissellement et d’érosion sur les versants semi-arides du Nord-ouest de l’Algérie [Influence of land use on runoff and erosion risks on the semi-arid slopes of North-West Algeria]. Sécheresse. Vol. 15. Iss. 2 p. 96–104.

Olchawa A., Gorączko A. 2012. The relationship between the liquid limit of clayey soils, external specific surface area and the composition of exchangeable cations. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 17 p. 83–88.

Pham T.L. 2008. Erosion et dispersion des sols argileux par un fluide [Erosion and dispersion of clay soils by a fluid]. PhD Thesis. École Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées pp. 195.

Remini B. 2000. L'envasement des barrages en Algérie: quelques exemples algériens [The siltation of dams in Algeria: some Algerian examples]. Bulletin du Réseau Erosion. Vol. 2. No. 20 p. 165–171.

Remini B., Bensafia D., Nasroun T. 2015. Impact of sediment transport of the Chellif River on silting of the Boughezoul reservoir (Algeria). Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 24 p. 35–40. DOI 10.1515/jwld-2015-0005.

Robitaille V., Tremblay D. 1997. Mécanique des sols (théorie et pratique) [Soil mechanics (theory and practice)]. Quebec, Canada. Modulo. ISBN 2891136586 pp. 652.

Roose E. 1996. Méthodes de mesure des états de surface du sol, de la rugosité et des autres caractéristiques qui peuvent aider au diagnostic de terrain, des risques de ruissellement et d'érosion, en particulier sur les versants cultivés des montagnes [Methods for measuring soil surface conditions, roughness and other characteristics that may assist in land diagnosis, runoff and erosion risks, particularly on mountain cultivated]. Bulletin du Réseau Erosion. Vol. 16 p. 87–97.

Roose E., Chebbani R., Bourougaa L. 2000. Ravinement en Algérie. Typologie, facteurs de contrôle, quantification et réhabilitation [Gully in Algeria. Typology, control factors, quantification and rehabilitation]. Sécheresse. Vol. 11(4) p. 317–326.

Selmi K., Khanchoul K. 2016. Sediment load estimation in the Mellegue catchment, Algeria. Journal of Water and Land Development. No. 31 p. 129–137. DOI 10.1515/jwld-2016-0044.

Mazour M. 2006. Analyse de quelques aménagements antiérosifs juste à l’amont du barrage de Hammam Boughrara (Moyenne-Tafna) Tlemcen (Algérie) [Analysis of some anti-erosion facilities just upstream of Hammam Boughrara dam (Moyenne-Tafna) Tlemcen (Algeria)]. Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement Marseille Cedex 02 p. 249–255.

Touaibia B. 2010. Problématique de l’érosion et du transport solide en Algérie septentrionale [The problem of erosion and solid transport in northern Algeria]. Sécheresse. Vol. 21 (1) p. 1–6.

Touaibia B., Gomer D., Aidaoui A. 2000. Estimation de l’index d’érosion de Wischmeier dans les micro bassins expérimentaux de l’Oued Mina en Algérie du Nord [Estimation of the Wischmeier erosion index in the experimental micro-watershed of Mina wadi in Northern Algeria]. Réseau Erosion-Bulletin. No. 20 p. 478–484.

Wischmeier H., Johnson B., Cross V. 1971. A soil erodibility nomograph for farm land and construction sites. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. Vol. 26 5 p. 189–192.

Wischmeier H., Smith D. 1978. Predicting rainfall erosion losses. A guide to conservation planning. USDA Handbook. No. 537 pp. 59.

Journal of Water and Land Development

The Journal of Committee for Land Reclamation and Environmental Engineering in Agriculture of Polish Academy of Sciences and Institute of Technology and Life Sciences in Falenty

Journal Information


CiteScore 2017: 1.04

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.304
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 1.024

Ministry of Science and Higher Education: 14 points

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 915 915 23
PDF Downloads 206 206 9