Application of SWAT model to small agricultural catchment in Poland

Open access

Application of SWAT model to small agricultural catchment in Poland

Poland is obliged, like the other EU countries, to implement the Water Framework Directive - WFD (2000/60/WE) by the end of 2015. The main objective of WFD is to provide normative quality of all water resources. To reach this goal reduction of water polluter emission to the environment is needed. Our project focuses on pollution from agricultural sources which share in global pollution is high and growing still. As a pilot area, where the WFD is going to be implemented, small agricultural Zgłowiączka catchment was chosen.

The state monitoring of surface water quality for the catchment is conducted in three points along the Zgłowiaczka River. In each of these three points, nitrates concentration periodically significantly exceeds the allowable value of 50 mg NO3·dm-3. The highest average monthly values of nitrates concentration in years 1990-2007 occur in February, March and April, which indicates on agriculture as a source of pollution. The Zgłowiaczka catchment is an area where reduction of nitrogen run-off from agricultural lands to water resources is especially needed. The main topic of the research carried out in the Polish-Norwegian project is to propose different means for reduction of migration of nitrate to surface water based on modeling approach. In the paper a conception of creating buffer zones using SWAT model is presented. We considered fitting the buffer zone width, depending on the flow rate of water flowing from the fields to the stream. Using SWAT model interface a map of potential flow under the conditions of the intensive precipitation was generated. The next step was distribution over the whole Zgłowiączka catchment, places with high density of the temporal streams network. It was done using GRASS program. The map of stream "density" was done by assigning the raster number which is the sum of raster in the neighbourhood (radius of neighbourhood smaller or equal 25 raster). The choice of the most endangered subbasins was done on base of visual evaluation of the surface flow density map.

It is visible in the results that filter strips on endangered areas are far more effective and therefore more required. If the width of the vegetated buffer strips is not sufficient, it will not attain the desired effectiveness. Conversely, if the width is too great, it will cause agricultural land waste, preventing farmers' interest in cooperating with environmental preservation efforts. For the above reasons, it is important to set a reasonable width range. According to the results we are suggesting wider buffer zones in endangered subbasins and narrow in other subbasins.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Bärlund I. Kirkkala T. Malve O. KäMäri J. 2007. Assessing SWAT model performance in the evaluation of management actions for the implementation of the Water Framework Directive in a Finnish catchment. Environmental Modelling & Software 22 5: 719-724.

  • Bouraoui F. Benabdallah S. Jrad A. Bidoglio G. 2005. Application of the SWAT model on the Medjerda river basin (Tunisia). Physics and Chemistry of Earth 30: 497-507.

  • Conan C. Bouraoui F. Turpin N. de Marsily G. Bidoglio G. 2003. Modeling flow and nitrate fate at catchment scale in Brittany (France). Journal of Environmental Quality 32 6: 2026-2032.

  • Council Directive 91/676/EEC of 12 December 1991 concerning the protection of waters against pollution caused by nitrates from agricultural sources.

  • Drolc A. Koncan J. Z. 2008. Diffuse sources of nitrogen compounds in the Sava river basin Slovenia. Desalination 226 1-3: 256-261.

  • Dworak T. Gonzalez C. Laaser C. Interwies E. 2005. The need for new monitoring tools to implement the WFD. Environmental Science and Policy 8 3: 301-306.

  • European Parliament and the Council 2000. Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council Concerning Establishing a Framework for Community Action in the Field of Water Policy (2000/60/EC) October 23 2000.

  • Feng G. Ge Y. 2008. Numerical simulations of nutrient transport changes in Honghu Lake Basin Jianghan Plain. Chinese Science Bulletin 53 15: 2353-3363.

  • Grizzetti B. Bouraoui F. Granlund K. Rekolainen S. Bidoglio G. 2003. Modelling diffuse emission and retention of nutrients in the Vantaanjoki watershed (Finland) using the SWAT model. Ecological Modelling 169 1: 25-38.

  • Kyllmar K. Larsson M. H. Johnsson H. 2005. Simulation of N leaching from a small agricultural catchment with the field scale model SOILNBD. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment 107 1: 37-49.

  • Lin C. Y. Chou W. C. Lin W. C. 2002. Modeling the width and placement of riparian vegetated buffer strips: a case study on the Chi-Jia-Wang Stream. Journal of Environmental Managements 66: 269-280.

  • Lin Y. Lin C. Y. Choud W. C. Lin W. T. Tsai J. S. Wu C. F. 2004. Modeling of riparian vegetated buffer strip width and placement: A case study in Shei Pa National Park. Ecological Engineering 23: 327-339.

  • Miatkowski Z. Lewiński S. Kowalik W. Sołtysik A. Turbiak J. 2006. Przydatność zdjęć satelitarnych Landsat TM do identyfikacji intensywnie odwodnionych siedlisk hydrogenicznych w rejonie KWB Bełchatów. (Applicability of Landsat TM Satellite images to identification of intensively drained hydrogenics sites in the region of the brown coal mine Belchatów). Woda Środowisko Obszary Wiejskie. Rozprawy naukowe i monografie 16: 1-80.

  • Muleta M. K. Nicklow J. W. 2005. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis coupled with automatic calibration for a distributed watershed model. Journal of Hydrology 306 1-4: 127-145.

  • Neitsch S. L. Arnold J. G. Kiniry J. R. Williams J. R. King K. W. 2002. Soil and Water Assesment Tool Theoretical Documentation. Texas Water Resources Institute College Station Texas.

  • Sheperd B. Harper D. Millington A. 1999. Modelling catchment-scale nutrient transport to watercourses in the UK. Hydrobilogia 395/396: 227-237.

  • Wolf J. Rötter R. Oenema O. 2005. Nutrient emission models in environmental policy evaluation at different scales - experience from the Netherlands. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment 105: 291-306.

  • Złonkiewicz M. Łabędzki L. Gruszka J. 2007. Program nawodnień rolniczych w województwie kujawsko-pomorskim. (Agricultural irrigation program in kujawsko-pomorskie voivodship). Bydgoszcz Gospodarstwo Pomocnicze przy K-PZMiUW.

Journal information
Impact Factor
CiteScore 2018: 1.55

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.401
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 1.389

Ministry of Science and Higher Education: 14 points

Cited By
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 149 104 1
PDF Downloads 63 49 1