Introduction: Laryngeal swab samples collected from three waterfowl slaughterhouses in central Taiwan were cultured and suspected isolates of Riemerella anatipestifer were identified by API 20NE and 16S rDNA PCR.
Material and Methods: Serum agglutination was used for serotyping, and antimicrobial susceptibility was tested.
Results: Seventy-six R. anatipestifer isolates were detected, and the prevalences in the ducks and geese were 12.3% (46/375) and 8.0% (30/375), respectively. The positive isolation rates were 65.6% for all arriving waterfowl, 76.0% for birds in the holding area, 1.6% for defeathered carcasses, but zero for degummed carcasses. A PCR examination detected R. anatipestifer in the slaughtering area frequently. Serotype B was dominant in both duck (34.8%) and goose (46.7%) isolates, but the wide serotype distribution may very well impede vaccination development. All isolates were resistant to colistin, and 79.7% were resistant to more than three common antibiotics.
Conclusion: The results proved that most ducks had encountered antibiotic-resistant R. anatipestifer in rearing, which suggests that the bacterium circulates in asymptomatic waterfowl. It is worth noting that most waterfowl farms were found to harbour R. anatipestifer, and contaminated slaughterhouses are a major risk factor in its spread. Effective prevention and containment measures should be established there to interrupt the transmission chain of R. anatipestifer.
2. Cha S.Y., Seo H.S., Wei B., Kang M., Roh J.H., Yoon R.H., Kim J.H., Jang H.K.: Surveillance and characterization of Riemerella anatipestifer from wild birds in South Korea. J Wildl Dis 2015, 51, 341–347.
3. Chang C.F.: Pathogenesis of Pasteurella anatipestifer infection in ducks and drug sensitivity. Taiwan J Vet Med Anim Hus 1984, 43, 40–46.
4. Chen C.L., Wang S.T., Chu C., Wang S.H.: Comparison of four molecular typing methods for Riemerella anatipestifer. Taiwan Vet J 2015, 41, 177–185.
5. Chen Y.P., Lee S.H., Chou C.H., Tsai H.J.: Detection of florfenicol resistance genes in Riemerella anatipestifer isolated from ducks and geese. Vet Microbiol 2012, 154, 325–331.
6. Chen Y.P., Lee S.H., Tsai H.J.: Serotyping of Riemerellar anatipestifer isolates from waterfowl in Taiwan between 2008 and 2012. Exp Rep Taiwan AHRI 2013, 48, 21–28.
7. Chu C.Y., Liu C.H., Liou J.J., Lee J.W., Cheng L.T.: Development of a subunit vaccine containing recombinant Riemerella anatipestifer outer membrane protein A and CpG ODN adjuvant. Vaccine 2015, 33, 92–99.
8. Cochran W.G.: Sampling Techniques, Wiley, New York. 1977.
9. Cooper G.L.: Pasteurella anatipestifer infections in California turkey flocks: circumstantial evidence of a mosquito vector. Avian Dis 1989, 33, 809–815.
10. Davis M.A., Winn J.F.: Poultry disease manual. Texas Cooperative Extension, Texas A & M University System, College Station, Texas. 2006.
11. Heddleston K.L.: Infectious serositis. In: Diseases of poultry. Edited by Hofstad M.S., Calnek B.W., Biester H.E. American Association of Avian Pathologists, Iowa State University Press, Ames 1972, pp. 246–251.
12. Hess C., Enichlmayr H., Jandreski-Cvetkovic D., Liebhart D., Bilic, I., Hess M.: Riemerella anatipestifer outbreaks in commercial goose flocks and identification of isolates by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Avian Pathol 2013, 42, 151–156.
13. Hu Q., Han X., Zhou X., Ding S., Ding C., Yu S.: Characterization of biofilm formation by Riemerella anatipestifer. Vet Microbiol 2010, 144, 429–436.
14. Huang C.C.: The natural transmission, serotypes, antimicrobial susceptibility of Riemerella anatipestifer and combinational infection with circoviruses in waterfowl. Department of Veterinary Medicine. National Chiayi University, Chiayi, Taiwan. 2008.
15. Layton H.W., Sandhu T.S.: Protection of ducklings with a broth-grown Pasteurella anatipestifer bacterin. Avian Dis 1984, 28, 718–726.
16. Leavitt S., Ayroud M.: Riemerella anatipestifer infection of domestic ducklings. Can Vet J 1997, 38, 113.
17. Leibovitz L.: A survey of the so-called “anatipestifer syndrome”. Avian Dis 1972, 16, 836–851.
18. Li Y.L.: Sequence analysis of plasmids and application to detection of antibiotics resistance genes in Riemerella anatipestifer isolated in Taiwan. Department of Veterinary Medicine. National Chung Hsing University, Taichung. 2004. p. 75.
19. Liu C.K., Chen C.M., Chang T.C., Chang W.F., Chang S.K., Kuo C.C., Lin J.S., Chu C.Y.: Handbook of veterinary drugs commonly used for poultry. Bureau of Animal and Plant Health Inspection and Quarantine, COA, EY, Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C. 2009.
20. Liu H., Wang X., Ding C., Han X., Cheng A., Wang S., Yu S.: Development and evaluation of a trivalent Riemerella anatipestifer-inactivated vaccine. Clin Vaccine Immunol 2013, 20, 691–697.
21. Liu Y.Y., Wang Y., Walsh T.R., Yi L.X., Zhang R., Spencer J., Doi Y., Tian G., Dong B., Huang X., Yu L.F., Gu D., Ren H., Chen X., Lv L., He D., Zhou H., Liang Z., Liu J.H., Shen J.: Emergence of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance mechanism MCR-1 in animals and human beings in China: a microbiological and molecular biological study. Lancet Infect Dis 2016, 16, 161–168.
22. Loh H., Teo T.P., Tan H.C.: Serotypes of ‘Pasteurella’ anatipestifer isolates from ducks in Singapore: a proposal of new serotypes. Avian Pathol 1992, 21, 453–459.
23. Magwedere K., Rauff D., De Klerk G., Keddy K.H., Dziva F.: Incidence of nontyphoidal Salmonella in food-producing animals, animal feed, and the associated environment in South Africa, 2012-2014. Clin Infect Dis 2015, 61, 283–289.
24. Pathanasophon P., Sawada T., Pramoolsinsap T., Tanticharoenyos T.: Immunogenicity of Riemerella anatipestifer broth culture bacterin and cell-free culture filtrate in ducks. Avian Pathol 1996, 25, 705–719.
25. Pathanasophon P., Sawada T., Tanticharoenyos T.: New serotypes of Riemerella anatipestifer isolated from ducks in Thailand. Avian Pathol 1995, 24, 195–199.
26. Phonvisay M., Liou J.J., Cheng L.T., Chen Y.P., Wu H.C., Liu C.H., Lee J.W., Chu C.Y.: Survey of a Riemerella anatipestifer outbreak in southern taiwan duck farms. Taiwan Vet J 2017, 43, 165–170.
27. Ryll M., Christensen H., Bisgaard M., Christensen J.P., Hinz K.H., Köhler B.: Studies on the prevalence of Riemerella anatipestifer in the upper respiratory tract of clinically healthy ducklings and characterization of untypable strains. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health 2001, 48, 537–546.
28. Sandhu T.S.: Immunogenicity and safety of a live Pasteurella anatipestifer vaccine in White Pekin ducklings: laboratory and field trials. Avian Pathol 1991, 20, 423–432.
29. Sandhu T.S.: Riemerella anatipestifer infection. In: Diseases of Poultry, edited by Saif Y.M., Barnes H.J., Glisson J.R., Fadly A.M., McDougald L.R., Swayne D.E., Iowa State Press, Ames, Iowa. 2003. pp. 676–682.
30. Tian K.G., Gui Y.P.: Research on infectious sinusitis in white Beijing ducklings. I. Epidemiology and pathology. Xu Mu Shou Yi Xue Bao 1990, 21, 327–331.
31. Tsai H.J., Liu Y.T., Tseng C.S., Pan M.J.: Genetic variation of the ompA and 16S rRNA genes of Riemerella anatipestifer. Avian Pathol 2005, 34, 55–64.
32. Umaraw P., Prajapati A., Verma A.K., Pathak V., Singh V.P.: Control of campylobacter in poultry industry from farm to poultry processing unit: A review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2017, 57, 659–665.
33. Wayne P.: CLSI. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; Twenty-Fifth Informational Supplement. CLSI Document M100-S25, Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. 2015.
34. Yu C.Y., Liu Y.W., Chou S.J., Chao M.R., Weng B.C., Tsay J.G., Chiu C.H., Ching Wu C., Long Lin T., Chang C.C., Chu C.: Genomic diversity and molecular differentiation of Riemerella anatipestifer associated with eight outbreaks in five farms. Avian Pathol 2008, 37, 273–279.