Identification and molecular characterisation of bovine parainfluenza virus-3 and bovine respiratory syncytial virus - first report from Turkey

Open access

Abstract

Introduction: Bovine parainfluenza virus-3 (BPIV3) and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) are the cause of respiratory disease in cattle worldwide. With other pathogens, they cause bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) in ruminants. The aim of the study was the detection and molecular characterisation of BPIV3 and BRSV from nasal swabs and lung samples of cows in and around the Erzurum region of eastern Turkey. Material and Methods: In total, 155 samples were collected. Of animals used in the study 92 were males and 63 females. The age of the animals was between 9 months and 5 years, mean 1.4 years. Most males were in the fattening period and being raised in open sheds; females were in the lactating period and kept in free stall barns. All samples were tested for the presence of viral genes using RT-PCR. Gene-specific primers in a molecular method (RT-PCR) identified BRSV (fusion gene) and BPIV3 (matrix gene) strains at the genus level. Results: RNA from BRSV and BPIV3 was detected in two (1.29%) and three (1.93%) samples, respectively, one of each of which was sequenced and the sequences were aligned with reference virus strains. Phylogenetic analyses clustered the strains in genotype C/BPIV3 and subgroup III/BRSV. Conclusion: The results indicate that BRSV and BPIV3 contribute to bovine respiratory disease cases in Turkey. This is the first report on their detection and molecular characterisation in ruminants in Turkey.

1. Akca Y., Burgu I., Gur S., Bilge-Dagalp S.: A study on investigations of occurrence of some virus infection in buffaloes in Turkey. Rev Med Vet 2004, 156, 268–271.

2. Alkan F., Ozkul A., Bilge-Dagalp S., Yesilbag K., Oguzoglu C., Akca Y., Burgu I.: Virological and serological studies on the role of PI-3 virus, BRSV, BVDV, and BHV- 1 on respiratory infections of cattle. I. The detection of etiological agents by direct immunofluorescence technique. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr 2000, 107, 193–195.

3. Alkan F., Özkul A., Karaoglu M.T., Bilge S., Akça Y., Burgu I., Yesilbag K., Oğuzoğlu T.C.: Sığırlarda viral nedenli solunum sistemi enfeksiyonlarinin seroepidemiyolojisi. Ankara Üniv Vet Fak Derg 1997, 44, 73–80.

4. Alkan F., Ozkul A., Oguzoglu T.C., Timurkan M.Ö., Caliskan E., Martella V., Burgu I.: Distribution of G (VP7) and P (VP4) genotypes of group A bovine rotaviruses from Turkish calves with diarrhea, 1997–2008. Vet Microbiol 2010, 141, 231–237.

5. Alpay G., Tuncer P., Yeşilbağ K.: Bir ada ekosistemindeki sığır, koyun ve keçilerde bazı viral enfeksiyonların serolojik olarak araştırılması. Ankara Üniv Vet Fak Derg 2014, 61, 43–48.

6. Avci O., Yavru S., Ekik M.: Detection of respiratory viral antigens in cattle lung tissues by direct ELISA. Anim Vet Sci 2014, 2, 146–149.

7. Avci O., Yavru S., Sevik M.: Antibody prevalence against respiratory viruses in naturally infected cattle in Central Anatolia. Eurasian J Vet Sci 2014, 30, 80–84.

8. Baker J.C., Werdin R.E., Ames T.R., Markham R.J.F., Larson V.L.: Study on the etiologic role of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in pneumonia of dairy calves. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1986, 189, 66–86.

9. Bertolotti L., Giammarioli M., Rosati S.: Genetic characterization of bovine respiratory syncytial virus strains isolated in Italy: evidence for the circulation of new divergent clades. J Vet Diagn Invest 2018, 30, 300–304.

10. Bortolin Affonso I., de Souza A., Cavalheiro Martini M., Bianchi dos Santos M., Rosado Spilki F., Weis Arns C., Issa Samara S.: Detection of an untyped strain of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in a dairy herd. Semina: Ciências Agrárias 2014, 35, 2539–2549.

11. Çabalar M., Can Şahna K.: Doğu ve güneydoğu anadolu bölgesinde süt sığırlarında parainfluenza virus-3, bovine herpes virus-1 ve respiratory syncytial virus enfeksiyonlarının seroepidemiyolojisi. YYÜ Vet Fak Derg 2000, 11, 101–105.

12. Dean A.S., Fournié G., Kulo A.E., Boukaya G.A., Schelling E., Bonfoh B.: Potential risk of regional disease spread in West Africa through cross-border cattle trade. Plos One 2013, 8, e75570.

13. Duman R., Yavru S., Kale M., Avcı O.: Seroprevalence of viral upper respiratory infections in dairy cattle. Kafkas Üniv Vet Fak Derg 2009, 15, 539–542.

14. Fulton R.W.: Bovine respiratory disease research (1983–2009). Anim Health Res Rev 2009, 10, 131–139.

15. Fulton R.W., Confer A.W.: Laboratory test descriptions for bovine respiratory disease diagnosis and their strengths and weaknesses: gold standards for diagnosis, do they exist? Can Vet J 2012, 53, 754–761.

16. Graham J.P., Leibler J.H., Price L.B., Otte J.M., Pfeiffer D.U., Tiensin T., Silbergeld E.K.: The animal-human interface and infectious disease in industrial food animal production: rethinking biosecurity and biocontainment. Publ Health Rep 2008, 123, 282–299.

17. Hall T.A.: BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Nucleic Acids Symp Ser 1999, 41, 95–98.

18. Hodgson P.D., Aich A., Manuja A., Hokamp H., Roche F.M., Brinkman F.S.I., Potter A., Babiuk L.A., Griebel P.J.: Effect of stress on viral-bacterial synergy in bovine respiratory disease; novel mechanisms to regulate inflammation. Comp Func Genom 2005, 6, 244–250.

19. Horwood P.F., Gravel J.L., Mahony T.J.: Identification of two distinct bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 genotypes. J Gen Virol 2008, 89, 1643–1648.

20. Kawano M., Bando H., Ohgimoto S., Okamoto K., Kondo K., Tsurudome M., Nishio M., Ito Y.: Complete nucleotide sequence of the matrix gene of human parainfluenza type 2 virus and expression of the M protein in bacteria. Virology 1990, 179, 857–861.

21. Kondo K., Fujii M., Nakamura T., Bando H., Kawano M., Tsurudome M., Komada H., Kusakawa S., Nishio M., Ito Y.: Sequence characterization of the matrix protein genes of parainfluenza virus types 4A and 4B. J Gen Virol 1991, 72, 2283–2287.

22. Maidana S.S., Lomonaco P.M., Combessies G., Craig M.I., Diodati J., Rodriguez D., Parreño V., Zabal O., Konrad J.L., Crudelli G., Mauroy A., Thiry E., Romera S.A.: Isolation and characterization of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 from water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) in Argentina. BMC Vet Res 2012, 20, 83.

23. Neill J.D., Ridpath J.F., Valayudhan B.T.: Identification and genome characterization of genotype B and genotype C of bovine parainfluenza type 3 viruses isolated in the United States. BMC Vet Res 2015, 11, 112.

24. Oem J.K., Lee E.Y., Lee K.K., Kim S.H., Lee M.H., Hyun B.H.: Molecular characterization of a Korean bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 isolate. Vet Microbiol 2013, 162, 224–227.

25. Oğuzoğlu T.C., Muz D., Yılmaz V., Timurkan M.Ö., Alkan F., Akça Y., Burgu İ.: Molecular characteristics of bovine virus diarrhoea virus 1 isolates from Turkey: approaches for an eradication programme. Transbound Emerg Dis 2012, 59, 303–310.

26. Pastey M.K., Samal S.K.: Analysis of the bovine respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein (F) using monoclonal antibodies. Vet Microbiol 1997, 58, 175–185.

27. Pirtle E.C., Beran G.W.: Virus survival in the environment. Rev Sci Tech 1991, 10, 733–748.

28. Ren J.L., Zhu Y.M., Zhou Y.H., Lv C., Yan H., Ma L., Shi H.F., Xue F.: Identification of three antigen epitopes on the nucleocapsid protein of the genotype C of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3. Vet Microbiol 2015, 178, 61–69.

29. Sarmiento-Silva R.E., Nakamura-Lopez Y., Vaughan G.: Epidemiology, molecular epidemiology, and evolution of bovine respiratory syncytial virus. Viruses 2012, 4, 3452–3467.

30. Snowder G.D., Van Vleck L.D., Cundiff L.V., Bennett G.: Bovine respiratory disease in feedlot cattle: environmental, genetic, and economic factors. J Anim Sci 2006, 84, 1999–2008.

31. Spilki F.R., Almeida R.S., Domingues H.G., D’Arce R.C.F., Ferreira H.L., Campalans J., Costa S.C., Arns C.W.: Phylogenetic relationships of Brazilian bovine respiratory syncytial virus isolates and molecular homology modeling of attachment glycoprotein. Virus Res 2006, 116, 30–37.

32. Tamura K., Stecher G., Peterson D., Filipski A., Kumar S.: MEGA6: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 6.0. Mol Biol Evol 2013, 30, 2725–2729.

33. Thonur L., Maley M., Gilray J., Crook T., Laming E., Turnbull D., Nath M., Willoughby K.: One-step multiplex real time RT-PCR for the detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, and bovine parainfluenza virus 3. BMC Vet Res 2012, 28, 37.

34. Timurkan M.O., Alcigir M.E.: Phylogenetic analysis of a partial L1 gene from bovine papillomavirus type 1 isolated from naturally occurring papilloma cases in the northwestern region of Turkey. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 2017, 84, 1–6.

35. Timurkan M.O., Aydın H., Belen S.: The detection and molecular characterization of bovine respiratory coronavirus infection by RT-PCR in Erzurum. Atatürk Üniv Vet Bil Derg 2015, 10, 186–192.

36. Valarcher J.F., Schelcher F., Bourhy H.: Evolution of bovine respiratory syncytial virus. J Virol 2000, 74, 10714–10728.

37. Vilcek S., Elvander M., Ballagi-Pordány A., Belák S.: Development of nested PCR assays for detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in clinical samples. J Clin Microbiol 1994, 32, 2225–2231.

38. Willoughby K., Thomson K., Maley M., Gilray J., Scholes S., Howie F., Caldow G., Nettleton P.F.: Development of a real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for the detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in clinical samples and its comparison with immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence antibody testing. Vet Microbiol 2008, 126, 264–270.

39. Yang Y., Wang F.X., Sun N., Cao L., Zhang S.Q., Zhu H.W., Guo L., Cheng S.P., Wen Y.J.: Development and evaluation of two truncated recombinant NP antigen-based indirect ELISAs for detection of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 antibodies in cattle. J Virol Methods 2015, 222, 47–54.

40. Yavru S., Şimşek A., Yapkıç O., Kale M.: Serological evaluation of viral infections in bovine respiratory tract. Acta Vet-Beograd 2005, 55, 219–226.

41. Yesilbag K., Gungor B.: Seroprevalence of bovine respiratory viruses in North-Western Turkey. Trop Anim Health Prod 2008, 40, 55–60.

42. Zhu Y.M., Shi H.F., Gao Y.R., Xin J.Q., Liu N.H., Xiang W.H., Ren X.G., Feng J.K., Zhao L.P., Xue F.: Isolation and genetic characterization of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 from cattle in China. Vet Microbiol 2011, 149, 446–451.

Journal of Veterinary Research

formerly Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy

Journal Information


IMPACT FACTOR J Vet Res 2018: 0,829
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0,938

CiteScore 2018: 0.68

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.291
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.501

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 130 131 130
PDF Downloads 99 99 99