Occurrence of enterococci in mastitic cow’s milk and their antimicrobial resistance

Open access

Abstract

Introduction: The aim of the study was to evaluate the occurrence of enterococci in inflammatory secretions from mastitic bovine udders and to assess their antimicrobial resistance.

Material and Methods: A total of 2,000 mastitic milk samples from cows were tested in 2014–2017. The isolation of enterococci was performed by precultivation in buffered peptone water, selective multiplication in a broth with sodium azide and cristal violet, and cultivation on Slanetz and Bartley agar. The identification of enterococci was carried out using Api rapid ID 32 strep kits. The antimicrobial susceptibility was evaluated using the MIC technique.

Results: Enterococci were isolated from 426 samples (21.3%). Enterococcus faecalis was the predominant species (360 strains), followed by E. faecium (35 isolates), and small numbers of others. The highest level of resistance was observed to lincomycin, tetracycline, quinupristin/dalfopristin (Synercid), erythromycin, kanamycin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, and tylosin. Single strains were resistant to vancomycin and ciprofloxacin. All isolates were sensitive to daptomycin. E. faecalis presented a higher level of resistance in comparison to E. faecium, except to nitrofurantoin.

Conclusion: The results showed frequent occurrence of enterococci in mastitic cow’s milk and confirmed the high rate of their antimicrobial resistance.

1. Barlow J.: Mastitis therapy and antimicrobial susceptibility: a multispecies review with a focus on antibiotic treatment of mastitis in dairy cattle. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 2011, 16, 383–407.

2. Botrel M.-A., Haenni M., Morignat E., Sulpice Ph., Madec J.-Y., Calavas D.: Distribution and antimicrobial resistance of clinical and subclinical mastitis pathogens in dairy cows in Rhône-Alpes, France. Foodborne Path Dis 2010, 7, 479–485.

3. Bradley A.J.: Bovine mastitis: an evolving disease. Vet J 2002, 164, 116–128.

4. Burmańczuk A., Kowalski C., Roliński Z., Zań R., Krasucka D.: Activity of ß-lactam antibiotics against certain microorganisms which cause mastitis in cows. J Vet Res 2016, 60, 267–271.

5. Cameron M., Saab M., Heider L., McClure J.T., Rodrigues-Lecompte J.C., Sanchez J.: Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of environmental streptococci recovered from bovine milk samples in the Maritime province of Canada. Front Vet Sci 2016, 3, art. 79. Doi: 10.3389/fvets.2016.00079.

6. Cariolato D., Andrighetto C., Lombardi A.: Occurrence of virulence factors and antibiotic resistances in Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium collected from dairy and human samples in North Italy. Food Control, 2008, 19, 886–892.

7. Cervinkova D., Vlkova H., Borodacova I., Makovcova J., Babak V., Lorencova A., Vrtkova I., Marosevic D., Jaglic Z.: Prevalence of mastitis pathogens in milk from clinically healthy cows. Vet Med 2013, 58, 567–575.

8. Chajęcka-Wierzchowska W., Zadernowska A., Łaniewska-Trokenheim Ł.: Antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus strains present in food. Kosmos 2017, 314, 1, 67–79.

9. Ebrahimi A., Nikookhah F., Nikpour S., Majiian F., Gholami M.: Isolation of streptococci from milk samples of normal, acute, and subclinical mastitis cows and determination of their antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Pak J Biol Sci 2008, 11, 148–150.

10. Economou V., Gousia P.: Agriculture and food animals as a source of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. Infect Drug Resist 2015, 8, 49–61.

11. El Zubeir I.E.M., Kutzer P., El Owni O.A.O.: Frequencies and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of bacteria causing mastitis among cows and their environment in Khartoum State. Res J Microbiol 2006, 1, 101–109.

12. Erbas G., Parin U., Turkyilmaz S., Ucan N., Oztruk M., Kaya O.: Distribution of antibiotic resistance genes in Enterococcus spp. isolated from mastitis bovine milk. Acta Vet Beograd 2016, 66, 336–346.

13. Fabianová J., Ducková V., Čročko M.: Presence of enterococci in cow milk and their antibiotic resistance. Potravinárstwo 2010, 4, 17–21.

14. Galal Abdel Hammeed K., Sender G., Korwin-Kossakowska A.: Public health hazard due to mastitis in dairy cows. Anim Sci Pap Rec 2006, 25, 2, 73–85.

15. Gürler H., Findik A., Gültiken N., Ay S.S., Çíftçí A., Koldaş E., Arslan S., Findik M.: Investigation on the etiology of subclinical mastitis in jersey and hybrid-jersey dairy cows. Acta Vet Beograd, 2015, 65, 358–370.

16. Hammerum A.M., Lester C.H., Heuer O.E.: Antimicrobial-resistant enterococci in animals and meat: a human health hazard? Foodborne Path Dis 2010, 7, 1137–1148.

17. Hamzah A.M., Kadim H.K.: Isolation and identification of Enterococcus faecalis from cow milk samples and vaginal swab from human. Entomol Zool Sci 2018, 6, 218–222.

18. Idriss S.H.E., Foltys V., Tančin V., Kirchnerová K., Tančinová D., Zaujec K.: Mastitis pathogens and their resistance against antimicrobial agents in dairy cows in Nitra, Slovakia. Slovak J Anim Sci 2014, 47, 33–38.

19. Jackson C.R., Lombard J.E., Dargatz D.A., Fedorka-Cray P.J.: Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of enterococci isolated from US dairy cattle. Lett Appl Microbiol 2010, 52, 41–48.

20. Kagkli D.M., Vancanneyt M., Vandamme P., Hill C., Cogan T.M.: Contamination of milk by enterococci and coliforms from bovine faeces. J Appl Microbiol 2007, 103, 1393–1405.

21. Kateete D.P., Kabugo U., Baluku H., Nyakarahuka L., Kyobe S., Okee M., Najjuka Ch.F., Jaloba M.L.: Prevalence of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacteria from milkmen and cows with clinical mastitis in and around Kampala, Uganda. PLOS ONE, 2013, 8, 5, e63413.

22. Klimienė I., Ružauskas M., Špakauskas V., Mockeliũnas R., Pereckienė A., Butrimaitė-Ambrozevičienė Č.: Prevalence of Gram-positive bacteria in cow mastitis and their susceptibility to beta-lactam antibiotics. Vet Med. Zoot 2011, 56, 65–72.

23. Kuyucouğlu Y.: Antibiotic resistances of enterococci isolated from bovine subclinical mastitis. Eurasian J Vet Sci 2011, 27, 231–234.

24. Malinowski E., Lassa H., Kłossowska A., Smulski S., Markiewicz H., Kaczmarowski M.: Etiological agents of dairy cows’ mastitis in western part of Poland. Pol J Vet Sci 2006, 9, 191–194.

25. Oliver S.P., Murinda S.E.: Antimicrobial resistance of mastitis pathogens. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 2012, 28, 165–185.

26. Overesch G., Stephan R., Perreten V.: Antimicrobial susceptibility of gram-positive udder pathogens from bovine mastitis milk in Switzerland. Schw Arch Tier 2013, 155, 339–350.

27. Persson Y., Nyman A.K., Grönlund-Andersson U.: Etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility of udder pathogens from cases of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows in Sweden. Acta Vet Scand 2011, 53, 36 http://www.actavetscand.com/content/53/1/36.

28. Petersson-Wolfe C.S., Currin J.: Environmental streptococci and Enterococcus spp.: a practical summary for controlling mastitis. 2012, www.ext.vt.edu.

29. Rocha B., Mendonca D., Niza-Ribeiro J.: Trends in antibacterial resistance of major bovine mastitis pathogens in Portugal. RCPV 2014, 109, 79–88.

30. Rüegsegger F., Ruf J., Tschour A., Sigrist Y., Rooskopf M., Hässig M.: Antimicrobial susceptibility of mastitis pathogens of dairy cows in Switzerland. Schw Arch Tier 2014, 156, 483–488.

31. Xiaohu W.U., Zhang Q., Ma Y., Zhang Y., Kan W., Zhao X.: Prevalence of virulence genes and resistance to antibiotics in pathogenic enterococci isolated from mastitic cows. J Vet Med. Sci 2016, 78, 1663–1683.

32. Zdolec N., Dobranić V., Butković I., Koturić A., Filipović I., Medvid V.: Antimicrobial susceptibility of milk bacteria from healthy and drug-treated cow udder. Vet Archiv 2016, 86, 163–172.

Journal of Veterinary Research

formerly Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy

Journal Information


IMPACT FACTOR J Vet Res 2017: 0.811

CiteScore 2017: 0.68

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.29
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.484

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 210 210 136
PDF Downloads 111 111 50