Presence of tapeworms (Cestoda) in red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in north-western Poland, with particular emphasis on Echinococcus multilocularis

Open access

Abstract

Introduction: Foxes are a reservoir of parasites that are dangerous to humans. The aim of the study was to determine the parameters associated with the occurrence of tapeworms in red foxes in north-western Poland.

Material and Methods: Parasitological sections were taken from 620 red foxes using IST and SCT methods in 18 districts of West Pomerania Province.

Results: The extensity of fox infection with tapeworms was 61%. Echinococcus multilocularis, Mesocestoides spp., Dipylidium caninum, and specimens of the genus Taenia were identified. E. multilocularis was found in 11 districts. Mesocestoides spp. demonstrated the highest prevalence (41.3%), while E. multilocularis demonstrated the lowest prevalence (2.9%); however, it infected foxes with the greatest mean intensity (235.6 tapeworms per fox). The most common co-occurrence in a single host organism was observed for Mesocestoides spp. and tapeworms of the genus Taenia; however, no examples were found of coinfection by E. multilocularis and D. caninum.

Conclusion: The occurrence of tapeworms in foxes was high in West Pomerania Province and was often higher than observed in previous years. For this reason, the risk of parasite transmission to humans and domestic animals is mounting. The risk of infection is also amplifying due to the growth of the fox population.

1. Al-Sabi M.N.S., Halasa T., Kape C.M.O.: Infections with cardiopulmonary and intestinal helminths and sarcoptic mange in red foxes from two different localities in Denmark. Acta Parasitol 2014, 59, 98–107.

2. Deplazes P., Eckert J.: Diagnosis of the Echinococcus multilocularis infection in final hosts. Appl Parasitol 1996, 37, 245–252.

3. Bružinskaite-Schmidhalter R., Sarkunas M., Malakauskas A., Mathis A., Torgerson P.R., Deplazes P.: Helminths of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Lithuania. Parasitol 2012, 139, 120–127.

4. Dalimi A., Sattari A., Motamedi G.: A study on intestinal helminthes of dogs, foxes, and jackals in the western part of Iran. Vet Parasitol 2006, 142, 129–133.

5. Dyachenko V., Pantchev N., Gawlowska S., Vrhovec M.G., Bauer C.: Echinococcus multilocularis infections in domestic dogs and cats from Germany and other European countries. Vet Parasitol 2008, 157, 244–253.

6. Eckert J., Deplazes P., Ewald D., Gottstein B.: Parasitologische und immunologische Methoden zum Nachweis von Echinococcus multilocularis bei Füchsen. Mitt Österr Ges Tropenmed Parasitol 1991, 13, 25–30.

7. Eckert J., Gemmell M.A., Meslin F.X., Pawłowski Z.S.: WHO/OIE manual on echinococcosis in humans and animals: a public health problem of global concern. WHO/WOAH Ed. Paris (OIE), 2001, bpp. 1–265.

8. Fiocchi A., Gustinelli A., Gelmini L., Renzi M., Fontana M.C., Poglayen G.: Helminth parasites of the red fox Vulpes vulpes (L., 1758) and the wolf Canis lupus italicus Altobello, 1921 in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. Ital J Zool 2016, 83, 4, 503–513.

9. Fischer C., Reperant L., Weber J.M., Ochs H., Deplazes P.: Relation in the presence of various parasites in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Geneva. Swiss Med Wkly 2003, 133, 61.

10. Fuentes M.V., Galan-Puchades M.T., Malone J.B.: Short report: a new case report of human Mesocestoides infection in the United States. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2003, 68, 566–567.

11. Franssen F., Nijsse R., Mulder J., Cremers H., Dam C., Takumi K., van der Giessen J.: Increase in number of helminth species from Dutch red foxes over a 35-year period. Parasit Vectors 2014, 7, 166.

12. Gawor J.: Alveolar echinococcosis in Europe and Poland -threats to humans. Przegl Epidemiol 2016, 70, 281–288.

13. Gawor J., Malczewski A.: The tapeworm in foxes as a cause of a dangerous zoonosis alveolar echinococcosis in Poland. Kosmos 2005, 54, 89–94.

14. Gawor J., Malczewski A., Rocki B., Malczewska M., Borecka A.: Prevalence of the dangerous for humans tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis in red foxes in Poland. Med Weter 2004, 60, 489–491.

15. Grzeszczuk A., Łapiński T.W., Prokopowicz D.: Clinical and epidemiological aspects of alveolar echinococcosis. Med Weter 2001, 57, 21–23.

16. Janion S.M.: Certain host-parasite relationship between rodents (Muridae) and fleas (Aphaniptera). Ekol Pol 1968, 16, 461–506.

17. Karamon J., Samorek-Pierog M., Kochanowski M., Dabrowska J., Sroka J., Golab E., Umhang G., Cencek T.: First detection of Echinococcus multilocularis in dogs in a highly endemic area of Poland. Folia Parasitol (Praha) 2016, 63, 018.

18. Karamon J., Dąbrowska J., Kochanowski M., Samorek-Pieróg M., Sroka J., Różycki M., Bilska-Zając E., Zdybel J., Cencek T.: Prevalence of intestinal helminths of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in central Europe (Poland): a significant zoonotic threat. Parasit Vectors 2018, 11, 436.

19. Karamon J., Sroka J., Cencek T., Michalski M.M., Zięba P., Karwacki J.: Prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in red foxes in two eastern provinces of Poland. Bull Vet Inst Pulawy 2011, 55, 429–433.

20. Karamon J., Ziomko I., Cencik T., Sroka J., Zięba P.: Prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in red foxes in the Lublin voivodeship, Poland: preliminary study. Med Weter 2008, 64, 1237–1239.

21. Kern P., Bardonnet K., Renner E., Auer H., Pawłowski Z., Ammann R.W., Vuitton D.A., Kern P.: European Echinococcosis Registry: human alveolar echinococcosis, Europe, 1982–2000. Emerg Infect Dis 2003, 9, 343–349.

22. Malczewski A., Rocki B., Ramisz A., Eckert J.: Echinococcus multilocularis (Cestoda), the causative agent of alveolar echinococcosis in humans: first record in Poland. J Parasit 1995, 81, 318–321.

23. Moro P., Schantz P.M.: Echinococcosis: a review. Int J Infect Dis 2009, 13, 125–133.

24. Nahorski W.L., Knap J.P., Pawłowski Z.S., Krawczyk M., Polański J., Stefaniak J., Patkowski W., Szostakowska B., Pietkiewicz H., Grzeszczuk A., Felczak-Korzybska I., Gołąb E., Wnukowska N., Paul M., Kacprzak E., Sokolewicz-Bobrowska E., Niścigorska-Olsen J., Czyrznikowska A., Chomicz L., Cielecka D., Myja P.: Human alveolar echinococcosis in Poland: 1990–2011. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2013, 7, 1, e1986.

25. Oksanen A., Siles-Lucas M., Karamon J., Possenti A., Conraths F., Romig T., Wysocki P., Mannocci A., Mipatrini D., La Torre G., Boufana B., Casulli A.: The geographical distribution and prevalence of Echinococcus multilocularis in animals in the European Union and adjacent countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Parasit Vectors 2016, 9, 519.

26. Pacoń J., Sołtysiak Z., Nicpoń J., Janczak M.: Prevalence of internal helminths in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in selected regions of Lower Silesia. Med Weter 2006, 62, 67–69.

27. Rajkovic-Janje R., Marinculic A., Bosnic S., Benic M., Vinkovic B., Mihaljevic Z.: Prevalence and seasonal distribution of helminth parasites in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from the Zagreb County (Croatia). Z Jagdwiss 2002, 48, 151–160.

28. Shimalov V.V., Shimalov V.T.: Helminth fauna of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes Linnaeus, 1758) in southern Belarus. Parasitol Res 2003, 89, 77–78.

29. Tackmann K., Mattis R., Conraths J.: Detection of Echinococcus multilocularis in foxes: evaluation of a protocol of the intestinal scraping technique. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health 2006, 53, 395–398.

30. Umhang G., Woronoff-Rhenb N., Combes B., Boué F.: Segmental sedimentation and counting technique (SSCT): An adaptable method for qualitative diagnosis of Echinococcus multilocularis in fox intestines. Exp Parasitol 2011, 128, 57–60.

Journal of Veterinary Research

formerly Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy

Journal Information


IMPACT FACTOR J Vet Res 2017: 0.811

CiteScore 2017: 0.68

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.29
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.484

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 786 786 387
PDF Downloads 70 70 28