Effects of newly developed synbiotic and commercial probiotic products on the haematological indices, serum cytokines, acute phase proteins concentration, and serum immunoglobulins amount in sows and growing pigs – a pilot study
Introduction: The aim of the study was to determine the effects of supplementation of sows’ and growing pigs’ diets with three newly developed synbiotic and two extant commercial probiotic products on selected immune parameters under field conditions.
Material and Methods: The study was performed on 30 sows and 48 piglets of the Danbred breed. Immune parameters such as concentration and proportion of white blood cells and their subpopulations, immunoglobulins amount in serum, and serum concentration of cytokines and acute phase proteins were recorded with the use of a haematology analyser and ELISA kits.
Results: No significant differences between treatment groups and controls were found with regard to the immune parameters evaluated except for serum immunoglobulin concentration, which was significantly increased by synbiotic products B and C and probiotic product D.
Conclusion: The results of the study indicate that the synbiotic products B and C and probiotic product D are worthy of further investigation as promising candidates to improve the immune status of healthy sows and their offspring.
1. Azevedo M.S., Zhang W., Wen K., Gonzalez A.M., Saif L.J., Yousef A.E., Yuan L.: Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus reuteri modulate cytokine responses in gnotobiotic pigs infected with human rotavirus. Benef Microbes 2012, 3, 33–42.
2. Chen Y.J., Min B.J., Cho J.H., Kwon K.S., Kim I.H., Kim S.J.: Effects of dietary Enterococcus faecium SF68 on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, and faecal noxious gas content in finishing pigs. Asian-Aust J Anim Sci 2006, 19, 406–411.
3. Davis M.E., Parrott T., Brown D.C., de Rodas B.Z., Johnson Z.B., Maxwell C.V., Rehberger T.: Effect of a Bacillus-based direct-fed microbial feed supplement on growth performance and pen cleaning characteristics of growing-finishing pigs. J Anim Sci 2008, 86, 1459–1467.
4. Dlamini Z.C., Langa R.L.S., Aiyegoro O.A., Okoh A.I.: Effects of probiotics on growth performance, blood parameters, and antibody stimulation in piglets. S Afr J Anim Sci 2017, 47, 766–775.
5. Dong N., Zhang M., Zhou M., Tu Y., Deng K., Diao Q.: Effects of dietary probiotics on growth performance, faecal microbiota and serum profiles in weaned piglet. J Basic Microbiol 2013, 49, 220–226.
6. Dowarah R., Verma A.K., Agarwal N.: The use of Lactobacillus as an alternative of antibiotics growth promoters: a review. Anim Nutri 2017, 3, 1–6.
7. FAO/WHO.: Probiotics in food health and nutritional properties. FAO Food and Nutrition Paper, Rome, Italy (2002), p. 85.
8. Giang H.H., Viet T.Q., Ogle B., Lindberg J.E.: Growth performance, digestibility, gut environment and health status in weaned piglets fed a diet supplemented with potentially probiotic complexes of lactic acid bacteria. Livest Sci 2010, 129, 95–103.
9. Gibson G.R., Roberfroid M.B.: Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: introducing the concept of prebiotics. J Nutr 1995, 125, 1401–1412.
10. Guerra-Ordaz A.A., Molist F., Hermes R.G., Gomez de Segura A., La Ragione R.M., Woodward M.J., Tchotrzewska M.A., Collins J.W., Perez J.F., Martin-Orue S.M.: Effect of inclusion of lactulose Lactobacillus plantarum on the intestinal environment and performance of piglets at weaning. Anim Feed Sci Tech 2013, 185, 160–168.
11. Hatab M.H, Elsayed M.A., Ibrahim N.S.: Effect of some biological supplementation on productive performance, physiological and immunological response of layer chicks. J Radiat Res Appl Sci 2016, 9, 185–192.
12. Laskowska E., Jarosz Ł., Grądzki Z.: Effect of multi-microbial probiotic formulation Bokashi on pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines profile in the serum, colostrum and milk of sows, and in a culture of polymorphonuclear cells isolated from colostrum. Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins 2018.
13. Liao F., Nyachoti M.: Using probiotics to improve swine gut health and nutrient utilization. Anim Nutr 2017, 3, 331–343.
14. Liu H., Zhang J., Zhang S., Yang F., Thacker P.A., Zhang G., Ma X.: Oral administration of Lactobacillus fermentum I5007 favors intestinal development and alters the intestinal microbiota in formula-fed piglets. J Agric Food Chem 2014, 62, 860–866.
15. Liu H., Ji H.F., Zhang D.Y., Wang S.X., Wang J., Shan D.C., Wang Y.M.: Effects of Lactobacillus brevis preparation on growth performance, fecal microflora and serum profile in weaned pigs. Livestock Sci 2015, 178, 251–254.
16. Macfarlane G.T., Steed H., Macfarlane S.: Bacterial metabolism and health-related effects of galactooligosaccharides and other prebiotics. J Appl Microbiol 2008, 104, 305–344.
17. Malloa J.J., Rioperezb J., Honrubiaa P.: The addition of Enterococcus faecium to diet improves piglet’s intestinal microbiota and performance. Livest Sci 2010, 26, 243–256.
18. Mao X., Gu C., Hu H., Tang J., Chen D., Yu B., He J., Yu J., Luo J., Tian G.: Dietary Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supplementation improves the mucosal barrier function in the intestine of weaned piglets challenged by porcine Rotavirus. PLoS One 2016, 11, e0146312
19. Paryad A., Mahmoudi M.: Effect of different levels of supplemental yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on performance, blood constituents and carcass characteristics of broiler chicks. Afr J Agric Res 2008, 3, 835–842.
20. Regulation 1831/2003/EC on additives for use in animal nutrition, replacing Directive 70/524/EEC on additives in feeding-stuffs. OJ L 268, 18.10.2003, pp. 29–43.
21. Roodposhti P.M., Dabiri N.: Effects of probiotic and prebiotic on average daily gain, fecal shedding of Escherichia coli, and immune system status in newborn female calves. Asian-Aust J Anim Sci 2011, 25, 1255–1261.
22. Rosellia M., Pieper R., Rogel-Gaillard C., de Vries H., Bailey M., Smidt H., Lauridsen C.: Immunomodulating effects of probiotics for microbiota modulation, gut health and disease resistance in pigs. Anim Feed Sci Tech 2017, 233, 104–119.
23. Scharek L., Guth J., Filter M., Schmidt M.F.: Impact of the probiotic bacteria Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 (SF68) and Bacillus cereus var. toyoi NCIMB 40112 on the development of serum IgG and faecal IgA of sows and their piglets. Arch Anim Nutr 2007, 61, 223–234.
24. Scharek L., Guth J., Reiter K., Weyrauch K.D., Taras D., Schwerk P., Schierack P., Schmidt M.F.G., Wieler L.H., Tedin K.: Influence of a probiotic Enterococcus faecium strain on development of the immune system of sows and piglets. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2005, 105, 151–161.
25. Scharek-Tedin L., Pieper R., Vahjen W., Tedin K., Neumann K., Zentek J.: Bacillus cereus var. toyoi modulates the immune reaction and reduces the occurrence of diarrhea in piglets challenged with Salmonella typhimurium DT104. J Anim Sci 2013, 91, 5696–5704.
26. Shim S.B.: Effects of prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics in the diet of young pigs. Ph.D. Thesis. Animal Nutrition Group, Wageningen Institute of Animal Sciences, Wageningen University and Research Centre, 2005, Wageningen, Netherlands.
27. Szakacs A-R., Matei S., Stefanut L., Moni Z., Macri A.: Effects of pre and probiotic on growth performance and haematological parameters in pigs. Bull UASVM Vet Med 2009, 73, 265–300.
28. Taras D., Vahjen W., Macha M., Simon O.: Performance, diarrhea incidence, and occurrence of Escherichia coli virulence genes during long-term administration of a probiotic Enterococcus faecium strain to sows and piglets. J Anim Sci 2006, 84, 607–617.
29. Tian Z., Liu X., Dai R., Xiao Y., Wang X., Bi D., Shi D.: Enterococcus faecium HDRsEf1 protects the intestinal epithelium and attenuates ETEC-induced IL-8 secretion in enterocytes. Mediat Inflamm 2016, 5, 1–10.
30. Wang A., Yu H., Gao X., Li X., Qiao S.: Influence of Lactobacillus fermentum I5007 on the intestinal and systemic immune responses of healthy and E. coli challenged piglets. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 2009, 96, 89–98.
31. Wang J., Ji H.F., Hou C.L., Wang S.X., Zhang D.Y., Liu H., Shan D.C., Wang Y.M.: Effect of Lactobacillus johnsonii XS4 supplementation on reproductive performance, environment, and blood biochemical and immunological index in lactating sows. Livestock Sci 2014, 164, 96–101.
32. Wang W., Chen J., Zhou H., Wang L., Ding S., Wang Y., Song D., Li A.: Effects of microencapsulated Lactobacillus plantarum and fructooligosaccharide on growth performance, blood immune parameters, and intestinal morphology in weaned piglets. Food Agr Immunol 2017, 29, 84–94.
33. Zhang L., Xu Y.X., Liu H.Y., Lai T., Ma J.L., Wanga J.F., Zhu Y.H.: Evaluation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG using an Escherichia coli K88 model of piglet diarrhoea: Effects on diarrhea incidence, faecal microflora and immune responses. Vet Microbiol 2010, 141, 142–148.
34. Zimmermann B., Bauer E., Mosenthin R.: Pro- and prebiotics in pig nutrition – potential modulators of gut health? Anim Feed Sci 2001, 10, 47–56.