Genetic analysis of Toxocara spp. in stray cats and dogs in Van province, Eastern Turkey

Open access

Abstract

Introduction: Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati are roundworms of dogs and cats. The purpose of this study was to investigate the infection caused by these ascarids in cats and dogs, using microscopic and molecular analysis methods.

Material and Methods: Adult ascarids were gathered from the faeces of dogs and cats in Van province, in 2015–2016. Existing keys and PCR sequencing of the ITS-2 fragment were used to identify the morphological features of the parasite species.

Results: It was observed that out of 20 adult ascarids, 17 and 3 were found to be Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati, respectively. The ITS-2 gene region was amplified by PCR to perform molecular analysis. Genotyping indicated that the dogs and cats were infected with T. canis and T. cati, respectively, and none had Toxascaris leonina.

Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the molecular characteristics of adult ascaridoid nematodes from cats and dogs in Turkey. The molecular approaches established in this study enable molecular identification and genetic structure studies of the ascaridoids.

1. Balkaya I., Avcıoglu H.: Gastro-intestinal helminths detected by coprological examination in stray dogs in the Erzurum province Turkey. Kafkas Univ Vet Fak Derg 2011, 17, 43–46.

2. Fisher M.: Toxocara cati: an underestimated zoonotic agent. Trends Parasitol 2003, 19, 167–170.

3. Fogt-Wyrwas R., Mizgajska-Wiktor H., Pacon J., Jarosz W.: Intraspecific variation between the ITS sequences of Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati, and Toxascaris leonina from different host species in south-western Poland. J Helminthol 2013, 87, 432–442.

4. Gibbons L.M., Jacobs D.E., Sani R.A.: Toxocara malaysiensis n.sp. (Nematoda: Ascaridoidea) from the domestic cat (Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758). J Parasitol 2001, 87, 660–665.

5. Glickman L.T., Schantz P.M.: Epidemiology and pathogenesis of zoonotic toxocariasis. Epidemiol Rev 1981, 3, 230–250.

6. He X., Lv M.N., Liu G.H., Lin R.Q.: Genetic analysis of Toxocara cati (Nematoda: Ascarididae) from Guangdong province, subtropical China. Mitochondrial DNA A DNA Mapp Seq Anal 2017, 31, 1–4.

7. Hotez P.J., Wilkins P.P.: Toxocariasis: America’s most common neglected infection of poverty and a helminthiasis of global importance? PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2009, 3, e400.

8. Jacobs D.E., Zhu X., Gasser R.B., Chilton N.B.: PCR-based methods for identification of potentially zoonotic ascaridoid parasites of the dog, fox, and cat. Acta Tropica 1997, 68, 191–200.

9. Jin Y., Shen C., Huh S., Sohn W.M., Choi M.H., Hong S.T.: Serodiagnosis of toxocariasis by ELISA using crude antigen of Toxocara canis larvae. Korean J Parasitol 2013, 51, 433–439.

10. Joy A.T., Chris O.I., Godwin N.C.: Toxocariasis and Public Health: An Epidemiological Review. Glob J Infect Dis Clin Res 2017, 3, 28–39.

11. Khademvatan S., Rahim F., Tavalla M., Abdizadeh R., Hashemitabar M.: PCR-based molecular characterization of Toxocara spp. using feces of stray cats: A study from southwest Iran. Plos One 2013, 8, e65293.

12. Kumar S., Stecher G., Tamura K.: Mega7: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 7.0 for bigger data sets. Mol Biol Evol 2016, 33, 1870–1874.

13. Li K., Luo H.Q., Zhang H., Mehmood K., Shahzad M., Zhang L.H., Li J.K.: Analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of Ascaris suum and Ascaris lumbricoides derived from free range Tibetan pigs. Mitochondrial DNA Part A 2017, 21, 1–5.

14. Li M., Lin R., Chen H., Sani R.A., Song H.Q., Zhu X.Q.: PCR tools for the verification of the specific identity of ascaridoid nematodes from dogs and cats. Mol Cell Probes 2007, 21, 349–354.

15. Li M.W., Zhu X.Q., Gasser R.B., Lin R.Q., Sani R.A., Lun Z.R., Jacobs D.E.: The occurrence of Toxocara malaysiensis in cats in China, confirmed by sequence-based analyses of ribosomal DNA. J Parasitol Res 2006, 99, 554–557.

16. Luo H.Q., Zhang H., Li K., Lan Y.F., Shahzad M., Wang X.Q., Khalid M., Mujeeb R., Huang S.C., Li J.K., Yangzom Q.B.: Molecular characterization of ascaris from Tibetan pigs by three mitochondrial markers of nad1, cox1, and cox2. Trop Biomed 2017, 34, 576–582.

17. Matoff K., Wassileff I.: On the biology of Toxascaris leonine (Ueber die Biologie von Toxascaris leonine). Z Parasitenkd 1958, 18, 271–291.

18. Mikaeili F., Mirhendi H., Mohebali M., Hosseini M., Sharbatkhori M., Zarei Z., Kia E.B.: Sequence variation in mitochondrial cox1 and nad1 genes of ascaridoid nematodes in cats and dogs from Iran. J Helminthol 2015, 89, 496–501.

19. Moreira G.M., Telmo P.L., Mendonça M., Moreira A.N., McBride A.J., Scaini C.J., Conceição F.R.: Human toxocariasis: current advances in diagnostics, treatment, and interventions. Trends Parasitol 2014, 30, 456–464

20. Overgaauw P.A., Van Knapen F.: Veterinary and public health aspects of Toxocara spp. Vet Parasitol 2013, 193, 398–403.

21. Pawar R.M., Lakshmikantan U., Hasan S., Poornachandar A., Shivaji S.: Detection and molecular characterization of ascarid nematode infection (Toxascaris leonina and Toxocara cati) in captive Asiatic lions (Panthera leo persica). Acta Parasitol 2012, 57, 67–73.

22. Pinelli E., Herremans T., Harms M.G., Hoek D., Kortbeek L.M.: Toxocara and Ascaris seropositivity among patients suspected of visceral and ocular larva migrans in the Netherlands: trends from 1998 to 2009. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2011, 30, 873–879.

23. Soulsby E.J.L.: Helminths, arthropods, and protozoa of domesticated animals. Bailliere Tindall, London, 1992.

24. Uga S., Matsuo J., Kimura D., Rai S.K., Koshino Y., Igarashi K.: Differentiation of Toxocara canis and T. cati eggs by light and scanning electron microscopy. Vet Parasitol 2000, 92, 287–294.

25. Van Knapen F., Buijs J., Kortbeek L.M., Ljungström I.: Larva migrans syndrome: Toxocara, Ascaris, or both? Lancet 1992, 340, 550–551.

26. Yaman M., Ayaz E., Gul A., Muz M.N.: Investigation of helminth infections of cats and dogs in the Hatay province. Turkiye Parazitol Derg 2006, 30, 200–204.

27. Zhu X.Q., Jacobs D.E., Chilton N.B., Sani R.A., Cheng N.A., Gasser, R.B.: Molecular characterization of a Toxocara variant from cats in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Parasitology 1998, 117, 155–164.

Journal of Veterinary Research

formerly Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy

Journal Information


IMPACT FACTOR J Vet Res 2017: 0.811

CiteScore 2017: 0.68

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.29
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.484

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 96 96 48
PDF Downloads 100 100 50