Introduction: Studies of anabolic hormone residues in the tissues of slaughter animals have been carried out in Poland for more than 25 years. During the period of 2011 to 2015, a total of 35 387 samples from different animal species were tested in the National Residue Control Programme for the presence of residues of compounds that cause hormonal effects, as listed in Annex 1 of Directive 96/23/EC.
Material and Methods: The research was conducted in the National Reference Laboratory and eight regional laboratories in departments of veterinary hygiene located throughout the country. Urine, muscle tissue, serum, kidney fat, and drinking water were the targeted matrices. Test methods based on instrumental techniques such as gas and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry were applied, as well as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA).
Results: The concentration of detected hormones exceeded the decision limits in 30 samples, the consequence of which was 41 non-compliances with current applicable criteria. The hormones found present pseudo-endogenous (nortestosterone and boldenone) only, while synthetic hormones were not identified.
Conclusion: The non-compliant findings constitute a small percentage (0.085%) of the five-year analysis compilation. On this basis the related food produced in Poland can be accepted as safe for human consumption with regard to the hormone residues tested.
1. Aitken J.N., Crichton J.A.: The effect of hexestrol implantation on growth and certain carcass characteristics of fattening steers. Br J Nutr 1956, 10, 220–225.
2. Arioli F., Gavinelli M.P., Fracchiolla M.L., Casati A., Fidani M., Ferrer E., Pompa G.: Evaluation of boldenone formation and related steroids transformations in veal faeces by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2008, 22, 217–223.
3. Buiarelli F., Giannetti L., Jasionowska R., Cruciani C., Neri B.: Determination of nandrolone metabolites in human urine: comparison between liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2010, 24, 1881–1894.
4. Clouet A-S., Le Bizec B., Montrade M-P., Monteau F., Andre F.: Identification of endogenous 19-nortestosterone in pregnant ewes by gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry. Analyst 1997, 122, 471–474.
5. Commission Decision No. 2002/657/EC of 12 August 2002 implementing Council Directive 96/23/EC concerning the performance of analytical methods and the interpretations of results. Off J Eur Commun L221, 8–36.
6. Council Directive 96/22/EC of 29 April 1996, concerning the prohibition on the use in stockfarming of certain substances having a hormonal or thyreostatic action and of β-agonists, and repealing Directives 81/602/EEC, 88/146/EEC and 88/299/EEC. Off J Eur Commun L125:0003–0009.
7. Council Directive 96/23/EC of 29 April 1996, on measures to monitor certain substances and residues thereof in live animals and animal products and repealing Directives 85/358/EEC and 86/469/EEC and Decisions 89/187/EEC and 91/664/EEC. Off J Eur Commun L125:0010–0032.
8. Council Directive 2003/74/EC of 22 September 2003 amending Council Directive 96/22/EC concerning the prohibition on the use in stockfarming of certain substances having hormonal or thyreostatic action and of beta agonists. Off J Eur Commun L262, 17–21.
10. De Brabander H., Poelmans S., Schilt R., Stephany R.W., Le Bizec B., Draisci R., Sterk S.S., van Ginkel L.A., Courtheyn D., Van Hoof N., Macri A., De Wasch K.: Presence and metabolism of the anabolic steroid boldenone in various animal species: a review. Food Addit Contam 2004, 21, 515–525.
11. Debruyckere G., Van Peteghem C.: Detection of 19-nortestosterone and its urinary metabolites in miniature pigs by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B 1991, 564, 393–403.
12. Donovan G.A., Sherman W.C.: Analysis of the growth pattern and the body composition of chickens implanted with diethylstilbestrol. Poult Sci 1960, 39, 757–765.
13. EFSA (European Food Safety Authority), 2013. Report for 2011 on the results from the monitoring of veterinary medicinal product residues and other substances in live animals and animal products. EFSA supporting publication 2013:EN-363. 65 pp. Available online: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/publications.
14. EFSA (European Food Safety Authority), 2014. Report for 2012 on the results from the monitoring of veterinary medicinal product residues and other substances in live animals and animal products. EFSA supporting publication 2014:EN-540. 65 pp. Available online: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/publications.
15. EFSA (European Food Safety Authority), 2015. Report for 2013 on the results from the monitoring of veterinary medicinal product residues and other substances in live animals and animal products. EFSA supporting publication 2015:EN-723, 69 pp. Available online: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/publications.
16. EFSA (European Food Safety Authority), 2016. Report for 2014 on the results from the monitoring of veterinary medicinal product residues and other substances in live animals and animal products. EFSA Supporting publication 2016:EN-923. 70 pp. Available online: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/publications.
17. EURL reflection paper: Natural growth promoting substances in biological samples, edited by RIKILT Wageningen UR, Wageningen, 2014.
18. Grace P.B., Drake E.C., Teale P., Houghton E.: Quantification of 19-nortestosterone sulphate and boldenone sulphate in urine from male horses using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2008, 22, 2999–3007.
19. Hemmersbach P., Groβe J.: Nandrolone: A multi-Faceted Doping Agent. In: Doping in sports, Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology 195, edited by Thieme D., Hemmersbach P., Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 2010, pp. 127–154.
20. Ho E.N.M., Yiu K.C.H., Tang F.P.W., Dehennin L., Plou P., Bonnaire Y., Wan T.S.M.: Detection of endogenous boldenone in the entire male horse. J Chromatogr B 2004, 808, 287–294.
21. Johnson B.J., Ribeiro F.R.B., Beckett J.L.: Application of growth technologies in enhancing food security and sustainability. Anim Front 2013, 3, 8–13.
22. Kaabia Z., Dervilly-Pinel G., Popot M.A., Baily-Chouriberry L., Plou P., Bonnaire Y., Le Bizec B.: Monitoring the endogeneous steroid profile disruption in urine and blood upon nandrolone administration: An efficient and innovative strategy to screen for nandrolone abuse in entire male horses. Drug Test Anal 2014, 6, 376–388.
23. Poelmans S., De Wasch K., Noppe H., Van Hoof N., Van Cruchten S., Le Bizec B., Deceuninck Y., Sterk S., Van Rossum H.J., Hoffman N.K., De Brabander H.F.: Endogenous occurrence of some anabolic steroids in swine matrices. Food Addit Contam 2005, 22, 808–815.
24. Preston R.L.: Hormone containing growth promoting implants in farmed livestock. Adv Drug Deliver Rev 1999, 38, 123–138.
25. Regulation of the Polish Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development of 29 August 2006 amending the regulation on methods of proceedings with prohibited substances, chemical, biological remains, medicinal products and radioactive contaminations in animals and products of animal origin (Journal of Laws 2006, No. 155, item 1113).
26. Roig M., Segura J., Ventura R.: Quantitation of 17β-nandrolone metabolites in boar and horse urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta 2007, 586, 184–195.
27. Samuels T.P., Nedderman A., Seymour M.A., Houghton E.: Study of the metabolism of testosterone, nandrolone and estradiol in cattle. Analyst 1998, 123, 2401–2404.
28. Scarth J., Acre C., Van Ginkel L., Le Bizec B., De Brabander H., Korth W., Points J., Teale P., Kay J.: Presence and metabolism of endogenous androgenic-anabolic steroid hormones in meat-producing animals: a review. Food Addit Contam 2009, 26, 640–671.
29. Soma L.R., Uboh C.E., Guan F., McDonnell S., Pack J.: Pharmacokinetics of boldenone and stanozolol and the results of quantification of anabolic androgenic steroids in race horses and nonrace horses. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 2007, 30, 101–108.
30. Sterk S., Herbold H., Blokland M., Van Rossum H., Van Ginkel L., Stephany R.: Nortestosterone: endogenous in urine of goats, sheep and mares? Analyst 1998, 123, 2633–2636.
31. Stewart L.: Implanting Beef Cattle. The University of Georgia Cooperative Extension: College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, College of Family and Consumer Sciences, Bulletin Reviewed March 2013, 1302, 1–8.
32. World Health Organization, International Agency For Research on Cancer, IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, Overall Evaluation of Carcinogenicity: An Updating of IARC Monographs Volumes 1 to 42, Supplement 7, Lyon, 1987, 1–42, 1–449.
33. World Health Organization, International Agency For Research on Cancer, IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risks of Chemicals to Humans, Sex hormones (II), Lyon, 1979, 21, 1–563.
34. Woźniak B.: Steroid hormones – properties, application, residues in food of animal origin. Med Weter 2010, 66, 177–181.
35. Yamada M., Kinoshita K., Kurosawa M., Saito K., Nakazawa H.: Analysis of exogenous nandrolone metabolite in horse urine by gas chromatography/combustion/carbon isotope ratio mass spectrometry. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2007, 45, 654–658.