Introduction: The present study is a comprehensive overview of the natural occurrence of 17β-oestradiol and testosterone in serum of cattle in Poland. Material and Methods: The serum samples (n = 826) were collected from cattle within five years. The samples were examined for the presence of oestradiol and testosterone using ELISA or gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. Results: In 98 samples (24%) 17β-oestradiol was detected above decision limits of applied methods, including five samples over the recommended concentration of 0.1 μg L-1. Of the serum samples taken from cows (≤18 months of age), 95 and 99 percentiles of the animals had 17β-oestradiol concentration below 0.027 and 0.086 μg L-1 and of samples from cows over 18 months of age - below 0.059 and 0.125 μg L-1 respectively. Calculated values for bulls (≤18 months of age) were 0.025 and 0.034 μg L-1 and for the animals older than 18 months of age - 0.035 and 0.041 μg L-1. The natural presence of testosterone was detected in 201 serum samples (48.7%). According to the obtained data, 95% and 99% of cows (≤18 months of age) serum samples had testosterone concentration below 0.05 and 0.23 μg L-1 and the animals over 18 months of age - 0.30 and 0.49 μg L-1, respectively. For bulls these values did not depend on the age of the animals and were in the ranges of 5 - 6.3 μg L-1 (95%) and 11.4 - 12.1 μg L-1 (99%). Conclusion: Our study showed that the threshold values for these hormones in plasma of cattle designated years ago are correct, but they need to be supplemented for animals older than 18 months.
1. Angeletti R., Contiero L., Gallina G., Montesissa C.: The urinary ratio of testosterone to epitetosterone: a good marker of illegal treatment also in cattle? Vet Res Comm 2006, 30, 127-131.
2. Chen Y., Yazdanpanah M., Hoffman B.R., Diamandis E.P., Wong P-Y.: Rapid determination of serum testosterone by liquid chromatography-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry and a split sample comparison with three automated immunoassays. Clin Biochem 2009, 42, 484-490.
3. Council Directive 88/146/EEC. 1988 OJ L 070, 16.03.88, p. 16-18.
4. Council Directive 96/23/EC. 1996 OJ L 125, 23.05.1996, p. 10-32.
5. CRL Guidance Paper, CRLs view on state of the art analytical methods for national residue control plans. December 2007.
6. Doyle E.: Human safety of hormone implants used to promote growth in cattle. A review of the scientific literature. Food Research Institute, University of Wisconsin, July 2000, http://fri.wisc.edu/docs/pdf/hormone.pdf.
8. Fiers T., Casetta B., Bernaert B., Vandersypt E., Debock M., Kaufman J.M.: Development of a highly sensitive method for the quantification of estrone and estradiol in serum by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry without derivatization. J Chromatogr B 2012, 893-894, 57-62.
9. Heitzman R.J., Ed.: Veterinary drug residues. Residues in foodproducing animals and their products: Reference materials and methods. CEC, report EUR 14126 EN, 1992.
10. Le Bizec B.: Use of isotope ratio mass spectrometry to differentiate between endogenous steroids and synthetic homologues in cattle: a review. Anal Chim Acta 2013, 772, 1-15.
11. Maume D., Le Bizec B., Pouponneau K., Deceuninck Y., Solere V., Paris A., Antignac J.P., Andre F.: Modification of 17β-estradiol metabolite profile in steer edible tissues after estradiol implant administration. Anal Chim Acta 2003, 483, 289-297.
12. Meyer H.H.D.: Biochemistry and physiology of anabolic hormones used for improvement of meat production. APMIS 2001, 109, 1-8.
13. Moal V., Mathieu E., Reynier P., Malthièry Y., Gallois Y.: Low serum testosterone assayed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Comparison with five immunoassay techniques. Clin Chim Acta 2007, 386, 12-19.
14. Nakada K., Moriyoshi M., Kaka T., Watanbe G., Taya K.: Changes in concentrations of plasma immunoreactive folliclestimulating hormone, luteinising hormone, estradiol-17β, testosterone, progesterone, and inhibin in heifers from birth to puberty. Dom Anim Endocrinol 2000, 18, 57-69.
15. Regal P., Cepeda A., Fente C.A.: Natural hormones in foodproducing animals: legal measurements and analytical implications. Food Production - Approaches, Challenges and Tasks, edited by Aladjadjiyan A. http://www.intechopen.com/books/food-production-approaches-challenges-and-tasks/naturalhormones-in-food-producing-animals-legal-measurements-andanalytical-implications.
16. Scarth J., Akre C., Van Ginkel L., Le Bizec B., De Brabander H., Korth W., Points J., Teale P., kay J.: Presence and metabolism of endogenous androgenic-anabolic steroid hormones in meatproducing animals: a review. Food Addit Contam 2009, 26, 640-671.
17. Scarth J.P., Clarke A., Teale P., Mill A., Macarthur R., Kay J.: Detection of endogenous steroid abuse in cattle: results from population studies in the UK. Food Addit Contam Part A 2011, 28, 44-61.
18. Scarth J.P., Kay J., Teale P., Akre C., Le Bizec B., De Brabander H.F., Vanhaecke L., Van Ginkel L., Points J.: A review of analytical strategies for the detection of 'endogenous' steroid abuse in food production. Drug Test Anal 2012, 4, 40-49.
19. Stephany R.W: Hormonal growth promoting agents in food producing animals. In: Doping in sports. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology, edited by Thieme D., Hemmersbach P., Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg 2010, pp. 355-367.
20. Stolker A.A.M., Groot M.J., Lasaroms J.J.P., Nijrolder A.W.J.M., Blokland M.H., Riedmaier I., Becker C., Meyer H.H.D., Nielen M.W.F.: Detectability of testosterone esters and estradiol benzoate in bovine hair and plasma following pour-on treatment. Anal Bioanal Chem 2009, 395,1075-1087.
21. Thakur R.A., Williard C., Rajasekaran A.: Using GC-MS/MS for superior sensitivity, specificity and precision in free testosterone analysis. Chromatography Today 2010, 3, 22-24.
22. Woźniak B., Matraszek-Żuchowska I., Żmudzki J.: Determination of 17β-oestradiol and testosterone in bovine serum with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Bull Vet Inst Pulawy 2011, 55, 755-759.
23. Wozniak B., Matraszek-Zuchowska I., Zmudzki J.: LC-MS/MS fast analysis of androgenic steroids in urine. Anal Bioanal Chem 2012, 403, 2965-2972.