Antioxidative Enzyme Activities and Lipid Peroxidation in Children with Inflammatory Endothelial Injury
During the inflammatory process endothelial cells are activated and a proadherent ability is assumed. The synthesis of reactive oxygen metabolites, which follows the immunological processes, can cause oxidative damage to endothelial cells leading to the clinical expression of disease including a variety of skin manifestations. In this study the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase) and the malondialdehyde concentration were examined in 36 children with inflammation-mediated damage to microvascular endothelial cells. On the basis of clinical manifestations the studied children were divided into 4 groups (1st group-macular skin manifestations, 2nd group-maculo-papular skin manifestations, 3rd group-papular skin manifestations, 4th group- erythematous skin manifestations). All the examined children showed symptoms of inflammation (mainly respiratory tract infections) with leukocytosis and monocytosis before actual skin manifestations took place. Superoxide dismutase activity was significantly decreased in three groups of patients, except in the group with erythematous skin manifestations. Catalase activity was significantly increased in all the groups compared to the control group. The values of malondialdehyde were significantly increased in the groups of children with maculo-papular and erythematous skin manifestations. The results have confirmed the presence of a changed antioxidant enzyme pattern indicating oxidative stress during inflammatory endothelial cells injury. Malondialdehyde was not an adequate parameter in its evaluation.
Adly AAM. Oxidative stress and disease: An updated review. Res J Immunol 2010; 3 (2): 129-45.
Van Wijk R, Van Wijk EP, Wiegant FA, Ives J. Free radicals and low-level photon emission in human pathogenesis: State of the art. Indian J Exp Biol 2008; 46: 273-309.
Bajčetić M, Brajović M, Korkut-Tešić R. Diagnostic and therapeutic significance of the oxidative stress parameters in children. Journal of Medical Biochemistry 2010; 29: 196-203.
Springer TA. Traffic signals on endothelium for lymphocyte recirculation and leukocyte emigration. Annu Rev Physiol 1995; 57: 827-72.
Binion DG, Fu S, Ramanujam KS, Chay YC, Dweik RA, Drayba JA, Wade JG, Ziats NP, Erzurum SC, Wilson KT. iNOS expression in human intestinal microvascular endothelial cells inhibits leukocyte adhesion. Am J Physiol 1998; 257: G592-G603.
Searles CD. Transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2006; 291: C803-C816.
Buckley CD, Rainger EG, Nash GB, Raza K. Endothelial cells, fibroblasts and vasculitis. Rheumatology 2005; 44: 860-3.
Đorđević VB, Stanković T, Ćosić V, Zvezdanović L, Kamenov B, Tasić-Dimov D, Stojanović I. Immune system-mediated endothelial damage is associated with NO and antioxidant system disorders. Clin Chem Lab Med 2004; 42: 1117-21.
Hoffmann G, Schobersberger W, Rieder J, Smolny M, Seibel M, Furhapter C, Fritsch P, Sepp N. Human dermal microvascular endothelial cells express inducible nitric oxide synthase in vivo. J Invest Dermatol 1999; 112: 387-90.
Guzik TJ, Korbut R, Adamek-Guzik T. Nitric oxide and superoxide in inflammation and immune regulation. J Physiol Pharmacol 2003, 54: 469-87.
Bochkov VN, Leitinger N. Redox regulation of endothelial function. Antioxid Redox Signal 2003; 5: 145-6.
Beutler E. Catalase. In: Red cell metabolism, a manual of biochemical methods. E. Beutler, editor. New York: Grune and Stratton 1982: 105-6.
Andreeva LJ, Kozemjakin LA, Kiskun AA. Modification of method for testing MDA with thiobarbituric acid. Laberdelo 1988; 11: 41-3.
Cai H, Harrison DG. Endothelial dysfunction in cardiovascular diseases: the role of oxidant stress. Circ Res 2000; 87: 840-4.
Li JM, Shah AM. Endothelial cell superoxide generation: regulation and relevance for cardiovascular pathophysiology. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2004; 287: R1014-1030.
Dworakowski R, Alom-Ruiz SP, Shah AM. NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species in the regulation of endothelial phenotype. Pharmacol Rep 2008; 60: 21-8.
Cave AC, Brewer AC, Narayanapanicker A, Ray R, Grieve DJ, Walker S, Shah AM. NADPH oxidases in cardiovascular health and disease. Antioxid Redox Signal 2006; 8: 691-728.
Lambeth JD. NOX enzymes and the biology of reactive oxygen. Nat Rev Immunol 2004; 4: 181-9.
Fattman CL, Schaefer LM, Oury TD. Extracellular superoxide dismutase in biology and medicine. Free Radic Biol Med 2003; 35 (3): 236-56.
Droge W. Free radicals in the physiological control or cell function. Physiol Rev 2002; 82: 47-95.
Acharyc J, Bunchard NA, Taylor JA, Thompson RPH, Pearson TC. Red cell lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in iron deficiency. Eur J Haematol 1991; 47: 287-91.
Aceto A, Di Hio C, Angelucci S, Tenaglia R, Zezza A, Caccuri AM, et al. Glutathione-related enzyme activities in testis of patients with malignant diseases. Clin Chim Acta 1989; 183: 83-6.
Yoshioka T, Bills T, Moore-Jarcelt T, Greene HL, Burr IM, Ichikawa I. Role of intrinsic antioxidant enzymes in renal oxidant injury. Kidney Int 1990; 38: 282-8.
Sait Keles M, Taysi S, Aksoy H, Sen N, Polat F, Akcay F. The effect of corticosteroids on serum and cerebrospinal fluid nitric oxide levels in multiple sclerosis. Clin Chem Lab Med 2001; 39: 827-9.
Leach M, Frank S, Olbrich A, Pheilschifter J, Thiemerman N. Decline in the expression of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase in the kidney of rats with endotoxic shock: Effect of the superoxide anion radical scavenger, tempol, on organ injury. Br J Pharmacol 1998; 125: 817-25.
Utas S, Kose K, Yazici C, Akdas A, Kelestimur F. Antioxidant potential of propilthiouracil in patients with psoriasis. Clin Biochem 2002; 35: 241-6.
Okayama Y. Oxidative stress in allergic and inflammatory skin diseases. Curr Drug Targets Inflamm Allergy 2005; 15: 316-28.
Briganti S, Cristaudo A, D'Argento V, Cassano N, Turbino L, Guerrera M, Vena G, Picardo M. Oxidative stress in physical urticarias. Clin Exp Dermatol 2001; 26: 284-8.
Kasperska-Zajac A, Brzoza Z, Polaniak R, Rogala B, Birkner E. Markers of antioxidant defense system and lipid peroxidation in peripheral blood of patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria. Arch Dermatol Res 2007; 208: 499-503.
Kasperska-Zajac A, Brzoza Z, Rogala B, Polaniak R, Birkner E. Antioxidant enzyme activity and malondialdehyde concentration in the plasma and erythrocytes of patients with urticaria induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2008; 18: 372-5.