Oxidative Stress - Clinical Diagnostic Significance

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Oxidative Stress - Clinical Diagnostic Significance

Elevated free radical production and/or insufficient antioxidative defense results in cellular oxidant stress responses. Sustained and/or intense oxidative insults can overcome cell defenses resulting in accumulated damage to macromolecules, leading to loss of cell function, membrane damage, and ultimately to cell death. Oxidative stress (OS) can result from conditions including excessive physical stress, exposure to environmental pollution and xenobiotics, and smoking. Oxidative stress, as a pathophysiological mechanism, has been linked to numerous pathologies, poisonings, and the ageing process. Reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species, endogenously or exogenously produced, can readily attack all classes of macromolecules (proteins, DNA, unsaturated fatty acid). The disrupted oxidative-reductive milieu proceeds via lipid peroxidation, altered antioxidative enzyme activities and depletion of non-enzymatic endogenous antioxidants, several of which can de detected in the pre-symptomatic phase of many diseases. Therefore, they could represent markers of altered metabolic and physiological homeostasis. Accordingly, from the point of view of routine clinical-diagnostic practice, it would be valuable to routinely analyze OS status parameters to earlier recognize potential disease states and provide the basis for preventative advance treatment with appropriate medicines.

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Journal of Medical Biochemistry

The Journal of Society of Medical Biochemists of Serbia

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