Biochemical Markers of Atherosclerosis

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Biochemical Markers of Atherosclerosis

This paper is a brief review of some lipid parameters and serum markers of inflammation in a view of their predictive relevance for the atherosclerotic disease. A discourse on the importance of measuring different lipids and lipoproteins, concentration of LDL particles and apolipoprotein levels is still underway. Also, the recommendations for apolipoprotein (a), phenotypization and other lipid markers have not yet been established. In recent years the recommendations imply simultaneous measuring of multiple markers and calculating the lipid index values such as lipid tetrad index (LTI), lipid pentad index (LPI) and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP). Several circulating markers of inflammation such as C-reactive protein, serum fibrinogen and elevated leukocyte number, are consistently associated with atherosclerosis. In spite of a lack of evidence on measuring the C-reactive protein in a wide population, the guidelines for its application in diagnostics and therapy of coronary heart disease were developed. Some proinflammatory cytokines, adhesion molecules and markers of leukocyte activation are promising markers, requiring, however, more detailed prospective evaluation. The question to be elucidated is if these inflammatory markers are directly involved in the pathogenic process.

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