Phonetics and phonology are very interesting areas of Linguistics, and are interrelated. They are based on the human speech system, speech perception, native speakers’ intuition, and vocalic and consonantal systems of languages spoken in this world. There are more than six thousand languages spoken in the world. Every language has its own phonemic inventory, sound system, and phonological and phonetic rules that differ from other languages; most even have distinct orthographic systems. While languages spoken in developed countries are well-studied, those spoken in underdeveloped countries are not. There is a great need to examine them using a scientific approach. These under-studied languages need to be documented scientifically using advanced technological instruments to bring objective results, and linguistics itself provides the scientific basis for the study of a language. Most research studies to date have also been carried out with reference to old or existing written literature in poetry and drama. In the current era of research, scholars are looking for objective scientific approaches, e.g., experimental and instrumental studies that include acoustic research on the sound systems of less privileged languages spoken locally in developing countries. In this context, Sindhi is an example of this phenomenon, and un-researched with reference to syllable structure and the exponents of lexical stress patterns.
Abbasi, A. M. (2010). The production of English consonants by Sindhi ESL learners. Munich. VDM Verlag Dr. Müller. Germany.
Abbasi, A. M. (2012). A phonetic-acoustic study of Sindhi-accented English for better English pronunciation. International Journal of Social Sciences & Education, 2(2), 146-157.
Abbasi, A. M. (2017). The stress pattern of Sindhi and English. Munich. Lincom Europa, Germany.
Abbasi, A. M., & Hussain, S. (2012). Syllable structure and syllabification in Sindhi-English loanwords. International Journal of Researchers, 1(4), 120-134.
Abbasi, A. M., & Hussain, S. (2015). Phonetic analysis of lexical stress in Sindhi. Sindh University Research Journal, 47(4), 749-756.
Abbasi, A. M., & Hussain, S. (2015). The role of pitch between stress and intonation in Sindhi. Annual Research Journal of English Language Forum, 17, 9-24.
Abbasi, A. M., & Kimball, A. (2014). Word stress in Sindhi and English: Implications for learners of English. In poster session presented at the meeting of Sixth Annual Second Language Acquisition and Teacher Education (SLATE) Graduate Research Symposium. Department of linguistics & foreign languages, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, USA.
Abbasi, A. M., Channa, M. A., John, S., Memon., M. A., Anwar, R. (2018). An Acoustic Investigation of Pakistani and American English Vowels. International Journal of English Linguistics, 8(4), 115-121. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijel.v8n4p115
Abbasi, A. M., Channa, M. A., Kakepoto, I., Ali, R., & Mehmood, M. (2017). A perceptual study of phonological variations in Pakistani English. International Journal of English Linguistics, 8, 91-100. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijel.v8n2p92
Abbasi, A. M., Memon, M. A., Channa, M. A., & Stephen, J. (2018). Awareness of L2 American English word stress: Implications for teaching speakers of Indo-Aryan languages. International Journal of English Linguistics, 8(3). https://doi.org/10.5539/ijel.v8n3p101
Allana, G.A. (1996). Papers on Sindhi language and linguistics (1st ed.). Jamshoro, Pakistan: Institute of Sindhology, University of Sindh.
Allana, G.A. (2009). Sindhi phonetics (2nd ed.). Hyderabad, Pakistan: Sindhi Language Authority.
Ashby, M., & Maidment, J. (2008). Introducing phonetic science. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Beckman, M. (1986). Stress and non-stress accent. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Foris Publications.
Beckman, M., & Pierrehumbert, J. (1986). Intonational structure in Japanese and English. Phonology Yearbook, 3, 255-309.
Carr, P. (2008). A glossary of phonology. Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh University Press.
Cole, J. (2001). Sindhi. In J. Garry & C. Rubino (Eds.), Facts about the world’s languages: An encyclopedia of the world’s major languages, past and present (pp. 647-653). New York, NY: The H.W. Wilson Company.
Cole, J. (2005). Sindhi. In P. Strazny (Ed.), Encyclopedia of linguistics. New York, NY: Routledge.
Crosswhite, K. M. (2001a). Vowel reduction. In Phonetically based phonology (B. Hayes, R. Kirchner & D. Steriade, editors) (pp. 191-231). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Crosswhite, K. M. (2001b). Stress placement in Dihovo Macedonian. Ms., U. of Rochester.
Crystal, D. (1997). A dictionary of linguistics and phonetics (4th ed.). Cornwall, England: MPG Book Ltd.
Crystal, D. (2008). A dictionary of linguistics and phonetics (6th ed.). ISBN: 978-1-405-15296-9.
Davenport, M., & Hannahs. S. J. (1998). Introducing phonetics and phonology. London, UK: Arnold.
De Lacy, P. (2007). The interaction of tone, sonority, and prosodic structure. In Paul de Lacy (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of phonology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ch.12 (pp. 281-307).
Dixon, R. M. W. (1977). A grammar of Yidin. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dogil, G. (1995). Phonetic correlates of word stress. Arbeitspapiere des Instituts für Maschinelle Sprachverarbeitung - Phonetik, Universität Stuttgart, 2 (2), 1-60.
Dogil, G. & Williams, B. (1999). The phonetic manifestation of word stress. In Word prosodic systems in the languages of Europe (H. van der Hulst, editor) (pp. 273-334). Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
Feinstein, M. (1979). Pre-nasalization and syllable structure. Linguistic Inquiry, (10), 245–278.
Flemming, E. (2002). Auditory representations in phonology. Routledge, New York.
Flemming, Edward (2005). Target less schwa revisited. Poster presented at the 149th Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America, Vancouver.
Fleischhacker, H. (2000). The location of epenthetic vowels with respect to consonant clusters: An auditory similarity account (Unpublished master’s thesis). UCLA, Los Angelos, CA.
Fry, D. (1955). Duration and intensity as physical correlates of linguistic stress. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 27, 765-8.
Fry, D. (1958). Experiments in the perception of stress. Language and Speech, 1, 120-52.
Fujisaki, H. & Hirose, K. (1984). Analysis of voice fundamental frequency contours for declarative sentences of Japanese. Journal of the Acoustical Society of Japan, 5, 233-242.
Gay, T. (1978). Effect of speaking rate on vowel formant movements. The Journal of the Acoustic Society of America, 63, 223-230.
Giegrich, H. J. (1998). English phonology (4th ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Gordon, M. (1999). Syllable weight: Phonetics, phonology, and typology (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). UCLA, Los Angelos, CA.
Gordon, M. (2002a). A phonetically-driven account of syllable weight. Language, 78, 51-80.
Gordon, M. (2002b). Weight-by-position adjunction and syllable structure. Lingua 112, 901-931.
Gordon, M. (2004). A phonological and phonetic study of word-level stress in Chickasaw. International Journal of American Linguistics, 70, 1-32.
Gordon, M. (2005). A perceptually-driven account of onset-sensitive stress. University of California, Santa Barbara. Journal of Springer Natural Language & Linguistic Theory, 23, 595–653. DOI 10.1007/s11049-004-8874-9
Gordon, M, Carmen J, Carlos N, and Nobutaka T. (2008). Vowel and consonant sonority and coda weight: A cross-linguistic study. In Proceedings of the 26th West coast conference on formal linguistics, (ed.), Charles B. Chang and Hannah J. Haynie, 208-216. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla proceedings project. www.lingref.com, document 1674.
Gordon, M. (2010). Disentangling stress and pitch accent: A typology of prominence at different prosodic levels. Paper presented at the University of Connecticut workshop on stress and accent, Storrs, CT.
Gordon, M, J, Nash & Takara. (2010). Syllable structure and extrametricality: A typological and phonetic study. Studies in Language, 34 (1), 131-166.
Gordon, M. (2011). Stress: Phonotactic and phonetic evidence. In M. van Ostendorp, C.J. Ewen, E. Hume, & K. Rice (Eds.), The Blackwell Companion to Phonology (pp. 924-948). Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
Haugen, E. (1956). Syllabification in Kutenai. International Journal of American Linguistics, (22), 196-201.
Hawkins, P. (1992). Introducing phonology (2nd ed.). London, UK: Hutchinson.
Hayes, B. (1981). A metrical theory of stress rules (Revised version of 1980 doctoral dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology). Distributed by Indiana University Linguistics Club, Bloomington, IN.
Hayes, B. (1982). Extrametricality and English stress. Linguistic Inquiry, 13 (2), 227-276.
Hayes, B. (1985). Iambic and Trochaic Rhythm in Stress Rules: Proceedings of the Eleventh Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society (pp. 429-446). Retrieved from http://linguistics.berkeley.edu/bls/
Hayes, B. (1995). Metrical stress theory. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Isačenko, A. & Schädlich, H. J. (1970). A model of standard German intonation. The Hague, Paris: Mouton.
Itô, J. (1989). A prosodic theory of epenthesis. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory, 7 (2), 217-259. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/4047731 International Phonetic Associations. (1999). Handbook of the international phonetic association. Washington: DC.
Jatoi, N. A. (1983). Linguistics and Sindhi language, (2nd ed.). Hyderabad, Pakistan: Institute of Sindhology.
Jatoi, N. A (1996). Linguistics and Sindhi language (Ilm Lisan Ain Sindhi Zaban) (3rd ed.). Hyderabad, Pakistan: Institute of Sindhology, Sindh University Press.
Jones, D. (1972). An outline of English phonetics (9th ed.). Cambridge, UK: Heffer & Sons.
Kabak, B. & Vogel, I. (2001). The phonological word and stress assignment in Turkish. Phonology, 18, 315-360.
Kachru, Y. (2006). Hindi. (London oriental and African language library, Vol. 12). Amsterdam, the Netherlands: John Benjamin Publishing Company.
Kager, R. (1989). A metrical theory of stress and destressing in English and Dutch. Dordrecht: Foris.
(1992a) Shapes of the generalized trochee. In J. Mead (ed.), Proceedings of the West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics, 11, 298-311.
Keerio, A. (2010). Acoustic analysis of Sindhi speech-pre-curser for an ASR system (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Sussex, Brighton, UK.
Kenstowicz, M. (1994). Phonology in generative grammar (2nd ed.). Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers.
Kidder, E. (2008). Tone, intonation, stress and duration in Navajo. Coyote Papers: Working Papers in Linguistics, Linguistic Theory at the University of Arizona. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10150/126405
Kleber, F. & Klipphahn, N. (n.d.). An acoustic investigation of secondary stress in