Formation and movement of ice accumulation waves under ice cover –an experimental study

Open access

Abstract

Ice jams in rivers often arise from the movement of frazil ice as cover-load under ice cover, a process which is conceptually similar to the movement of sediment as bed-load along a river bed. The formation and movement of an ice-accumulation wave is one facet of a larger class of cover-load movements. The movement of an ice-accumulation wave obviously plays a crucial role in the overall process of ice accumulation. In the present study, experiments under different flow and ice conditions help reveal the mechanics of formation and evolution of ice-accumulation waves. In particular, suitable criteria for formation of an ice-accumulation wave are investigated along with the resulting speed of wave propagation. The transport capacity of frazil ice under waved accumulation is modeled by comparing those of experiments collected in laboratories, and the resulting equation is shown to be in good agreement with measured experimental results.

Ackerman, N.L., Shen, H.T., 1983. Mechanics of ice jam formation in rivers. CRREL Report 83–31. U. S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, Hanover, New Hampshire, U.S.A.

Bagnold, R.A., 1956. The flow of cohesionless grains in fluids. Phil Trans of Royal Society of London, 249, A, 235–297.

Beltaos, S., 1993. Numerical computation of river ice jams. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 20, 1, 88–89.

Beltaos, S., 1995. River Ice Jam. Water-Resources Publications, LLC, Water Resources Publications LLC, Highlands Ranch, Colorado, U.S.A., pp. 155–172.

Beltaos, S., 2012. Distributed function analysis of ice jam flood frequency. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 71, 2, 1–10.

Beltaos, S., Burrell, B.C., 2010. Ice-jam model testing: Matapedia River case studies, 1994 and 1995. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 60, 1, 29–39.

Calkins, D.J., Ashton, G.D., 1976. Arching of model ice floes: effect of mixture variation on two block sizes. CRREL Report 76–42, U S Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, Hanover, New Hampshire, U.S.A.

Ettema, R., Huang, H.P., 1988. Ice-rubble accumulation beneath barges in ice-covered waters. IAHR Journal of Hydraulic Research, 26, 4, 379–412.

Gao, P., Jin, G., Lu, B., 2003. Preliminary study on ice regime in the Middle Route of South to North Water Transfer Project”. China Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 11, 96–101.

Luque, R.F., Beek, R.V., 1976. Erosion and transport of bed-load sediment. Journal of Hydraulic Research, 14, 2, 127–144.

Morse, B., Hessami, M., Bourel, C., 2011. Characteristics of ice in the St. Lawrence River. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 30, 4, 766–774.

Nuttall, J.B., 1973. River modification and channel improvements. In: Proceedings of the Seminar on Ice Jams in Canada. National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa.

Shen, H.T., 2010. Mathematical modeling of river ice processes. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 62, 1, 3–13.

Sui, J., Fang, D., Zhou, Y., 1994. The variations of water level of ice jams. China Journal of Hydrology, 2, 18–24.

Sui, J., Karney, B., Fang, D., 2005. Variation in water level under ice-jammed condition –Field investigation and experimental study. Nordic Hydrology, 36, 1, 65–84.

Sui, J., Karney, B., Sun, Z., Wang, D., 2002. Field investigation of frazil jam evolution - a case study. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 128, 781–787.

Sui, J., Wang, J., Balachandar, R., Sun, Z., Wang, D., 2008. Accumulation of frazil ice along a river bend. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 35, 158–169.

Urroz, G., 1988. Studies of ice jams in river bends. PhD Thesis. The University of Iowa, Iowa, U.S.A.

Urroz, G., Ettema, R., 1994. Small-scale experiments on ice jam initiation in a curved channel. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 21, 5, 719–727.

Wang, J., 2002. A study on ice jam in balance transporting discharge. Journal of Hydroelectric Engineering, 1, 61–67.

Wang, J., Chen, P., Sui, J., 2011. Numerical simulations of ice jams in natural channels. China Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 42, 9, 1117–1121.

Wang, J., Fu, H., Yin, M., Gao, Y., 2007a. Analysis of stages under ice-covered in winter. Advances in Water Science, 18, 1, 102–107.

Wang, J., Gao, Y., Yin, Y., Guo, L., Zhao, H., 2007b. An experimental study of ice jam formation and its thickness distribution in a curved channel. Journal of Glaciology and Geocryology, 29, 5, 764–769.

Wang, J., He, L., Chen, P., Sui, J., 2013. Numerical simulation of mechanical breakup of river ice-cover. Journal of Hydrodynamics, 25, 3, 415–421.

Wang, D., Shen, H.T., Sun, Z., 1993. Transport of frazil granules in Hequ reach of the Yellow River. Journal of Sediment Research, 4, 1–10.

Zufelt, J.E., Ettema, R., 2000. Fully coupled model of ice-jam dynamics. Journal of Cold Regions Engineering, 14, 1, 24–41.

Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics

The Journal of Institute of Hydrology SAS Bratislava and Institute of Hydrodynamics CAS Prague

Journal Information


IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 1.714
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.639



CiteScore 2018: 2.07

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.713
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 1.228

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 127 127 64
PDF Downloads 75 75 17