Ice jams in rivers often arise from the movement of frazil ice as cover-load under ice cover, a process which is conceptually similar to the movement of sediment as bed-load along a river bed. The formation and movement of an ice-accumulation wave is one facet of a larger class of cover-load movements. The movement of an ice-accumulation wave obviously plays a crucial role in the overall process of ice accumulation. In the present study, experiments under different flow and ice conditions help reveal the mechanics of formation and evolution of ice-accumulation waves. In particular, suitable criteria for formation of an ice-accumulation wave are investigated along with the resulting speed of wave propagation. The transport capacity of frazil ice under waved accumulation is modeled by comparing those of experiments collected in laboratories, and the resulting equation is shown to be in good agreement with measured experimental results.
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