Spatio-temporal variation of throughfall in a hyrcanian plain forest stand in Northern Iran

Open access


Elucidating segregation of precipitation in different components in forest stands is important for proper forest ecosystems management. However, there is a lack of information on important rainfall components viz. throughfall, interception and stemflow in forest watersheds particularly in developing countries. We therefore investigated the spatiotemporal variation of important component of throughfall for a forest stand in a Hyrcanian plain forest in Noor City, northern Iran. The study area contained five species of Quercus castaneifolia, Carpinus betulus, Populus caspica and Parrotia persica. The research was conducted from July 2013 to July 2014 using a systematic sampling method. Ninetysix throughfall collectors were installed in a 3.5 m × 3.5 m grid cells. The canopy covers during the growing/leaf-on (i.e., from May to November) and non-growing/leaf-off (i.e., from December to March) seasons were approximately 41% and 81%, respectively. The mean cumulative throughfall during the study period was 623±31 mm. The average throughfall (TF) as % of rainfall (TFPR) during leaf-on and leaf-off periods were calculated 56±14% and 77±10%, respectively. TF was significantly (R2 = 0.97, p = 0.00006) correlated with gross precipitation. Percent of canopy cover was not correlated with TF except when gross precipitation was <30 mm. A comparison between leaf-off and leaf-on conditions indicated a significantly higher TFPR and corresponding hotspots during leaf-on period. TFPR also differed between seasons with a maximum amount in winter (82%). The results of the study can be effectively used by forest watershed managers for better perception of hydrological behavior of the Hyrcanian forest in the north of Iran under different silvicultural circumstances leading to getting better ecosystem services.

Adriaenssens, S., Hansen, K., Staelens, J., Wuyts, K., De Schrijver, A., Baeten, L., Boeckx, P., Samson, R., Verheyen, K., 2012. Throughfall deposition and canopy exchange processes along a vertical gradient within the canopy of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst). Sci. Total Environ., 420, 168-182. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.12.029.

Aikawa, M., Hiraki, T., Tamaki, M., 2006. Comparative field study on precipitation, throughfall, stemflow, fog water, and atmospheric aerosol and gases at urban and rural sites in Japan. Sci. Total Environ., 366, 1, 275-285. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2005.06.027.

Ajami, H., Troch, P.a., Maddock, T., Meixner, T., Eastoe, C., 2011. Quantifying mountain block recharge by means of catchment-scale storage-discharge relationships. Water Resour. Res., 47, 4, 1-14. DOI: 10.1029/2010WR009598.

Bosch, J.M., Hewlett, J.D., 1982. A review of catchment experiments to determine the effect of vegetation changes on water yield and evaoptranspiration. J. Hydrol., 55, 3-23.

Brandt, J., 1987. The effect of different types of forest management on the transformation of rainfall energy by the canopy in relation to soil erosion. In: Proc. Vancouver Symposium Forest Hydrology and Watershed Management. IAHS Press, Wallingford, pp. 213-222.

Brecciaroli, G., Cocco, S., Agnelli, A., Courchesne, F., Corti, G., 2012. From rainfall to throughfall in a maritime vineyard. Sci. Total Environ., 438, 174-188. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.08.044.

Bruijnzeel, L.A., 2005. Tropical montane cloud forest: a unique hydrological case. In: Bonell, M., Bruijnzeel, L.A. (Eds.): Forests, Water and People in the Humid Tropics: Past, Present and Future Hydrological Research for Integrated Land and Water Management. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Buendia, C., Batalla, R.J., Sabater, S., Palau, A., Marcé, R., 2016. Runoff trends driven by climate and afforestation in a pyrenean basin. Land Degrad. Dev., 27, 3, 823-838. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2384.

Cao, Y., Ouyang, Z. Y., Zheng, H., Huang, Z.G., Wang, X.K., Miao, H., 2008. Effects of forest plantations on rainfall redistribution and erosion in the red soil region of Southern China, Land Degrad. Dev., 19, 3, 321-330. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.812.

Carlyle-Moses, D.E., 2004. Throughfall, stemflow, and canopy interception loss fluxes in a semi-arid Sierra Madre Oriental matorral community. J. Arid. Environ., 58, 2, 181-202. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-1963(03)00125-3.

Celentano, D., Rousseau, G.X., Engel, V.L., Zelarayán, M., Oliveira, E.C., Araujo, A.C.M., de Moura, E.G., 2016. Degradation of riparian forest affects soil properties and ecosystem services provision in eastern Amazon of Brazil. Land Degrad. Dev., DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2547.

Chappell, N.A., Bidin, K., 2001. Modelling rainfall and canopy controls on net-precipitation beneath selectively-logged tropical forest. plant. Ecol., 153, 1, 215-229. DOI: 10.1023/A:1017532411978.

Coenders-Gerrits, A.M.J., Hopp, L., Savenije, H.H.G., Pfister, L., 2013. The effect of spatial throughfall patterns on soil moisture patterns at the hillslope scale. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 5, 1749-1763. DOI: 10.5194/hess-17-1749-2013.

Cox, C.A., Sarangi, A., Madramootoo, C.A., 2006. Effect of land management on runoff and soil losses from two small watersheds in St Lucia. Land Degrad. Dev., 17, 1, 55-72. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.694.

David, J.S., Bellot, J., Birot, Y., David, T.S., 2011. Water fluxes in forests. In: Birot, Y., Gracia, C., Palahi, M. (Eds.): Water for Forests and People in the Mediterranean Region - A Challenging Balance. What Science Can Tell Us? European Forest Institute, Sarjanr, Finland, pp. 32-36.

Davudirad, A.A., Sadeghi, S.H.R., Sadoddin, A., 2015. Monitoring temporal and spatial changes in land use in the Shazand Watershed, Iran. J. Ecohydrol., 2, 4, 405-415. (In Persian.)

Davudirad, A.A., Sadeghi, S.H.R., Sadoddin, A., 2016. The impact of development plans on hydrological changes in the Shazand Watershed, Iran. Land Degrad. Dev., 27, 4, 1236-1244. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2523.

Deng, Z., Priestley, S.C., Guan, H., Love, A.J., Simmons, C.T., 2013. Canopy enhanced chloride deposition in coastal South Australia and its application for the chloride mass balance method. J. Hydrol., 497, 62-70. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2013.05.040.

Devlaeminck, R., De Schrijver, A., Hermy, M., 2005. Variation in throughfall deposition across a deciduous beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forest edge in Flanders. Sci. Total Environ., 337, 1, 241-252. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2004.07.005.

Díaz, M.F., Bigelow, S., Armesto, J.J., 2007. Alteration of the hydrologic cycle due to forest clearing and its consequences for rainforest succession. For. Ecol. Manage., 244, 1-3, 32-40. DOI: 10.1016/j.foreco.2007.03.030.

Dohnal, M., Černý, T., Votrubová, J., Tesař, M., 2014. Rainfall interception and spatial variability of throughfall in spruce stand. J. Hydrol. Hydromech, 62, 4, 277-284. DOI: 10.2478/johh-2014-0037.

Ebrahimpour, K.J., Nemati, M., Samariha, A., 2011. Study of product of the wood in forests in North of Iran at ten years period. J. Basic. Appl. Sci. Res., 1, 9, 1255-1261.

Forti, M.C., Neal, C., 1992. Spatial variability of throughfall chemistry in a tropical rainforest (Central Amazonia, Brazil). Sci. Total Environ., 120, 3, 245-259.

Frot, E., van Wesemael, B., Vandenschrick, G., Souchez, R., Benet, A.S., 2007. Origin and type of rainfall for recharge of a karstic aquifer in the western Mediterranean: A case study from the Sierra de Gador-Campo de Dalias (southeast Spain). Hydrol. Process., 21, 3, 359-368. DOI: 10.1002/hyp.6238.

Gabarrón-Galeote, M., Martínez-Murillo, J., Quesada, M., Ruiz-Sinoga, J., 2013. Seasonal changes in the soil hydrological and erosive response depending on aspect, vegetation type and soil water repellency in different Mediterranean microenvironments. Solid. Earth., 4, 2, 497-509. DOI: 10.5194/se-4-497-2013.

García-Fayos, P., Bochet, E., Cerdà, A., 2010. Seed removal susceptibility through soil erosion shapes vegetation composition. Plant. Soil., 334, 1-2, 289-297. DOI: 10.1007/s11104-010-0382-6.

Gay, T.E., Van Stan, J.T., Moore, L.D., Lewis, E.S., Reichard, J.S., 2015. Throughfall alterations by degree of Tillandsia usneoides cover in a southeastern US Quercus virginiana forest. Can. J. For. Res., 45, 12, 1688-1698. DOI: 10.1139/cjfr-2015-0233.

Germer, S., Elsenbeer, H., Moraes, J., 2006. Throughfall and temporal trends of rainfall redistribution in an open tropical rainforest, south-western Amazonia (Rondônia, Brazil). Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 10, 3, 383-393. DOI: 10.5194/hess- 10-383-2006.

Getis, A., Ord, J.K., 1992. The analysis of spatial associataion by use of distance statistics. Geogr. Anal., 24, 189-206. DOI: 10.1111/j.1538-4632.1992.tb00261.x.

Gurav, M., D, S.K.M., Kushalappa, C.G., Vaast, P., 2012. Throughfall and interception loss in relation to different canopy levels of coffee agroforestry systems. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol., 1, 3. DOI: 10.1109/CHUSER.2012.6504289.

Guswa, A.J., Spence, C.M., 2012. Effect of throughfall variability on recharge: application to hemlock and deciduous forests in western Massachusetts. Ecohydrology, 5, 5, 563-574. DOI: 0.1002/eco.281.

Herold, M., Couclelis, H., Clarke, K.C., 2005. The role of spatial metrics in the analysis and modeling of urban land use change. Comput. Environ. Urban Syst., 29, 4, 369-399. DOI: 10.1016/j.

Hinko-Najera, N., Fest, B., Livesley, S.J., Arndt, S.K., 2015. Reduced throughfall decreases autotrophic respiration, but not heterotrophic respiration in a dry temperate broadleaved evergreen forest. Agr. Forest. Meteorol., 200, 66-77. DOI: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2014.09.013.

Holder, C.D., 2003. Fog precipitation in the Sierra de las Minas biosphere reserve, Guatemala. Hydrol. Process., 17, 10, 2001-2010. DOI: 10.1002/hyp.1224.

Holder, C.D., 2004. Rainfall interception and fog precipitation in a tropical montane cloud forest of Guatemala. For. Ecol Manage., 190, 2, 373-384. DOI: 10.1016/j.foreco.2003.11.004.

Holko, L., Škvarenina, J., Kostka, Z., Frič, M., Staroň, J., 2009. Impact of spruce forest on rainfall interception and seasonal snow cover evolution in the Western Tatra Mountains, Slovakia. Biologia, 64, 3, 594-599. DOI: 10.2478/s11756- 009-0087-6.

Hopp, L., McDonnell, J.J., 2011. Examining the role of throughfall patterns on subsurface stormflow generation. J. Hydrol., 409, 1-2, 460-471. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.08.044.

Hosseini Ghaleh Bahmani, S.M., Attarod, P., Bayramzadeh, V., Ahmadi, M.T., Radmehr, A., 2012. Throughfall, stemflow, and rainfall interception in a natural pure forest of chestnutleaved oak (Quercus castaneifolia C.A. Mey.) in the Caspian forest of Iran. Ann. For. Res., 55, 2, 197-206. DOI: 10.15287/afr.2012.60.

Hosseini, M., Ghafouri, M., Tabatabaei, M.R., Ebrahimi, N.G., Zare Garizi, A., 2016. Estimation of hydrologic budget for Gharasou Watershed, Iran. Ecopersia, 4, 3, 1455-1469.

Huber, A., Iroumé, A., 2001. Variability of annual rainfall partitioning for different sites and forest covers in Chile. J. Hydrol., 248, 1-4, 78-92. DOI: 10.1016/S0022- 1694(01)00394-8.

Keesstra, S., Bruijnzeel, L., Van Huissteden, J., 2009. Mesoscale catchment sediment budgets: combining field surveys and modeling in the Dragonja catchment, southwest Slovenia. Earth. Surf. Poc. Land., 34, 11, 1547-1561. DOI: 10.1002/esp.1846.

Keesstra, S., Kondrlova, E., Czajka, A., Seeger, M., Maroulis, J., 2012. Assessing riparian zone impacts on water and sediment movement: a new approach. Neth. J. Geosci., 91, 1-2, 245-255. DOI: 10.1016/j.cosust.2012.10.007.

Keim, R.F., Skaugset, A.E., Weiler, M., 2005. Temporal persistence of spatial patterns in throughfall. J. Hydrol., 314, 263-274. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2005.03.021.

Lal, R., 1997. Deforestation effects on soil degradation and rehabilitation in western Nigeria. IV. Hydrology and water quality. Land Degrad. Dev., 8, 2, 95-126, DOI: 10.1002.

Llorens, P., Domingo, F., 2007. Rainfall partitioning by vegetation under Mediterranean conditions. A review of studies in Europe. J. Hydrol., 335, 1-2, 37-54. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2006.10.032.

Lloyd, C.R., 1988. Spatial variability of throughfall and stemflow measurements in Amazonian rainforest. Agr. Forest. Meteorol., 42, 1, 63-73.

Loescher, H.W., Powers, J.S., Oberbauer, S.F., 2002. Spatial variation of throughfall volume in an old-growth tropical wet forest, Costa Rica. J. Trop. Ecol., 18, 03, 397-407. DOI: 10.1017/S0266467402002274.

Marin, C.T., Bouten, W., Sevink, J., 2000. Gross rainfall and its partitioning into throughfall, stemflow and evaporation of intercepted water in four forest ecosystems in western Amazonia. J. Hydrol., 237, 1-2, 40-57. DOI: 10.1016/S0022-1694(00)00301-2.

Mitchell, M., Robarge, W.P., Bruck, R.I., Cowling, E.B., 1986. Throughfall and Stemflow Measurements during the Summer of 1986: A Preliminary Report.

Molina, A.J., Campo, A.D., 2012. The effects of experimental thinning on throughfall and stemflow: A contribution towards hydrology-oriented silviculture in Aleppo pine plantations. For. Ecol. Manage., 269, 206-213. DOI: 10.1016/j.foreco.2011.12.037.

Nanko, K., Hotta, N., Suzuki, M., 2006. Evaluating the influence of canopy species and meteorological factors on throughfall drop size distribution. J. Hydrol., 329, 3-4, 422-431. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2006.02.036.

Nasiri, M., Zare, N., Jalilvand, H., 2012. Investigation of the effective factors on rate of stemflow for tree species in Hyrcanian forests. Egypt. J. Bio., 14, 1, 37-44. DOI: 10.4314/ejb.v14i1.4.

Novara, A., Gristina, L., Guaitoli, F., Santoro, A., Cerdà, A., 2013. Managing soil nitrate with cover crops and buffer strips in Sicilian vineyards. Solid. Earth., 4, 2, 255-262. DOI: 10.5194/se-4-255-2013, 2013.

Onozawa, Y., Chiwa, M., Komatsu, H., Otsuki, K., 2009. Rainfall interception in a moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) forest. J. For. Res., 14, 2, 111-116. DOI: 10.1007/s10310-008-0108-2.

Park, A., Cameron, J.L., 2008. The influence of canopy traits on throughfall and stemflow in five tropical trees growing in a Panamanian plantation. For. Ecol. Manage., 255, 5-6, 1915-1925. DOI: 10.1016/j.foreco.2007.12.025.

Pereira, P., Cerdà, A., Úbeda, X., Mataix-Solera, J., Martin, D., Jordán, A., Burguet, M., 2013. Spatial models for monitoring the spatio-temporal evolution of ashes after fire- a case study of a burnt grassland in Lithuania. Solid. Earth., 4, 1, 153-165. DOI: 10.5194/se-4-153-2013.

Pérez-Suárez, M., Fenn, M.E., Cetina-Alcala, V.M., Aldrete, A., 2008. The effects of canopy cover on throughfall and soil chemistry in two forest sites in the México City air basin. Atmosfera, 21, 1, 83-100. DOI: 10.1007/978-0-387-22520-3_15.

Pypker, T.G., Bond, B.J., Link, T.E., Marks, D., Unsworth, M.H., 2005. The importance of canopy structure in controlling the interception loss of rainfall: Examples from a young and an old-growth Douglas-fir forest. Agr. Forest. Meteorol., 130, 1-2, 113-129. DOI: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2005.03.003.

Rahmani, R., Sadoddin, A., Ghorbani, S., 2011. Measuring and modelling precipitation components in an Oriental beech stand of the Hyrcanian region, Iran. J. Hydrol., 404, 3, 294-303. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.04.036.

Ritter, E., Dalsgaard, L., Einhorn, K.S., 2005. Light, temperature and soil moisture regimes following gap formation in a semi-natural beech-dominated forest in Denmark. For. Ecol. Manage., 206, 1, 15-33. DOI: 10.1016/j.foreco.2004.08.011.

Roberts, J., Rosier, P., 2005. The impact of broadleaved woodland on water resources in lowland UK: III. The results from Black Wood and Bridgets Farm compared with those from other woodland and grassland sites. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 9, 6, 614-620. DOI: 10.5194/hess-9-614-2005.

Sadeghi, S., Gholami, L., Sharifi, E., Khaledi Darvishan, A., Homaee, M., 2015. Scale effect on runoff and soil loss control using rice straw mulch under laboratory conditions. Solid. Earth., 6, 1, 1-8. DOI: 10.5194/se-6-1-2015.

Sadeghi, S.H.R., Mizuyama, T., Miyata, S., Gomi, T., Kosugi, K., Mizugaki, S., Onda, Y., 2007. Is MUSLE apt to small steeply reforested watershed? J. Forest Res., 12, 270-277. DOI: 10.1007/s10310-007-0017-9.

Sadeghi, S.H.R., Moatamednia, M., Behzadfar, M., 2011. Spatial and temporal variations in the rainfall erosivity factor in Iran. J.Agricul. Sci. Technol., 13, 451-464.

Sadeghi, S.H.R., Mizuyama, T., 2007. Applicability of Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation for prediction of sediment yield in Khanmirza watershed, Iran, Hydrol. Sci. J., 52, 5, 1068-1075. DOI:10.1623/hysj.52.5.1068.

Sadeghi, S.H.R., Mizuyama, T., Miyata, S., Gomi, T., Kosugi, K., Fukushima, T., Mizugaki, S., Onda, Y., 2008. Determinant factors of sediment graphs and rating loops in a reforested watershed. J. Hydrol., 356, 271-282. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2008.04.005.

Sadeghi, S.H.R., Vangah, B.G., Safaeeian, N.A., 2007. Comparison between effects of open grazing and manual harvesting of cultivated summer rangelands of northern Iran on infiltration, runoff and sediment yield. Land. Degrad. Dev., 18, 6, 608-620. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.799.

Sadeghi, S.H.R., Saeidi, P., 2010. Reliability of sediment rating curves for a deciduous forest watershed in Iran. Hydrol.Sci. J., 55, 5, 821-831. DOI: 10.1080/02626667.2010.489797.

Shachnovich, Y., Berliner, P.R., Bar, P., 2008. Rainfall interception and spatial distribution of throughfall in a pine forest planted in an arid zone. J. Hydrol., 349, 1-2, 168-177. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2007.10.051.

Staelens, J., De Schrijver, A., Verheyen, K., 2007. Seasonal variation in throughfall and stemflow chemistry beneath a European beech (Fagus sylvatica) tree in relation to canopy phenology. Can. J. For. Res., 37, 8, 1359-1372. DOI: 10.1139/X07-003.

Staelens, J., De Schrijver, A., Verheyen, K., Verhoest, N.E.C., 2006. Spatial variability and temporal stability of throughfall water under a dominant beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) tree in relationship to canopy cover. J. Hydrol., 330, 3-4, 651-662. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2006.04.032.

Tcherepanov, E., Zlotnik, V., Henebry, G., 2005. Using Landsat thermal imagery and GIS for identification of groundwater discharge into shallow groundwater‐dominated lakes. Int. J. Remote. Sens., 26, 17, 3649-3661. DOI: 10.1080/01431160500177315.

Van Stan, J.T., Levia, D.F., Inamdar, S.P., Lepori-Bui, M., Mitchell, M.J., 2012. The effects of phenoseason and storm characteristics on throughfall solute washoff and leaching dynamics from a temperate deciduous forest canopy. Sci. Total Environ., 430, 48-58. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.04.060.

Vattani, A., 2011. k-means requires exponentially many iterations even in the plane. Discrete. Comput. Geom., 45, 4, 596-616. DOI: 10.1007/s00454-011-9340-1.

Vega, J.A., Fernández, C., Fonturbel, T., 2005. Throughfall, runoff and soil erosion after prescribed burning in gorse shrubland in Galicia (NW Spain). Land Degrad. Dev., 16, 1, 37-51. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.643.

Vernimmen, R.R.E., Bruijnzeel, L.A., Romdoni, a., Proctor, J., 2007. Rainfall interception in three contrasting lowland rain forest types in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. J. Hydrol., 340, 3-4, 217-232. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2007.04.009.

Wuyts, K., De Schrijver, A., Staelens, J., Gielis, M., Geudens, G., Verheyen, K., 2008. Patterns of throughfall deposition along a transect in forest edges of silver birch and Corsican pine. Can. J. For. Res., 38, 3, 449-461. DOI: 0.1139/X07-181.

Xiao, Q., McPherson, E.G., Ustin, S.L., Grismer, M.E., Simpson, J.R., 2000. Winter rainfall interception by two mature open-grown trees in Davis, California. Hydrol. Process., 14, 4, 763-784. DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1099- 1085(200003)14:43.3.CO;2-Z.

Xu, X., Guan, H., Deng, Z., 2014. Isotopic composition of throughfall in pine plantation and native eucalyptus forest in South Australia. J. Hydrol., 514, 150-157. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2014.03.068.

Yousefi, S., Moradi, H.R., Boll, J., Schönbrodt-Stitt, S., 2016. Effects of road construction on soil degradation and nutrient transport in Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests. Geoderma, 284, 103-112. DOI: 10.1016/j.geoderma.2016.09.002.

Zhang, G., Zeng, G.-M., Huang, G.-H., Jiang, Y.-M., Yao, J.- M., Du, C.-Y., Jiang, R., Zhang, C., 2006. Deposition pattern of precipitation and throughfall in a subtropical evergreen forest in south-central China. J. For. Res., 11, 6, 389-396. DOI: 10.1007/s10310-006-0232-9.

Zhang, Q., Xu, C.-Y., Zhang, Z., Chen, Y.D., Liu, C.-L., 2009. Spatial and temporal variability of precipitation over China, 1951-2005. Theor. Appl. Climatol., 95, 1-2, 53-68. DOI: 10.1007/s00704-007-0375-4.

Ziegler, A.D., Negishi, J.N., Sidle, R.C., Gomi, T., Noguchi, S., Nik, A.R., 2007. Persistence of road runoff generation in a logged catchment in Peninsular Malaysia. Earth. Surf. Proc. Land., 32, 13, 1947-1970. DOI: 10.1002/esp.1508.

Zimmermann, A., Zimmermann, B., 2014. Agricultural and forest meteorology requirements for throughfall monitoring: The roles of temporal scale and canopy complexity. Agr. Forest. Meteorol., 189-190, 125-139. DOI: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2014.01.014.

Zimmermann, B., Zehe, E., Hartmann, N.K., Elsenbeer, H., 2008. Analyzing spatial data: An assessment of assumptions, new methods, and uncertainty using soil hydraulic data. Water Resour. Res., 44, 10, 1-18. DOI: 10.1029/2007WR006604.

Zirlewagen, D., von Wilpert, K., 2001. Modeling water and ion fluxes in a highly structured, mixed-species stand. For. Ecol. Manage., 143, 1-3, 27-37. DOI: 10.1016/S0378-1127(00)00522-3.

Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics

The Journal of Institute of Hydrology SAS Bratislava and Institute of Hydrodynamics CAS Prague

Journal Information

IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 1.714
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.639

CiteScore 2017: 1.91

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.599
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 1.084

Cited By


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 365 360 31
PDF Downloads 163 161 14