Impacts of thinning of a Mediterranean oak forest on soil properties influencing water infiltration

Open access

Abstract

In Mediterranean ecosystems, special attention needs to be paid to forest–water relationships due to water scarcity. In this context, Adaptive Forest Management (AFM) has the objective to establish how forest resources have to be managed with regards to the efficient use of water, which needs maintaining healthy soil properties even after disturbance. The main objective of this investigation was to understand the effect of one of the AFM methods, namely forest thinning, on soil hydraulic properties. At this aim, soil hydraulic characterization was performed on two contiguous Mediterranean oak forest plots, one of them thinned to reduce the forest density from 861 to 414 tree per ha. Three years after the intervention, thinning had not affected soil water permeability of the studied plots. Both ponding and tension infiltration runs yielded not significantly different saturated, Ks, and unsaturated, K−20, hydraulic conductivity values at the thinned and control plots. Therefore, thinning had no an adverse effect on vertical water fluxes at the soil surface. Mean Ks values estimated with the ponded ring infiltrometer were two orders of magnitude higher than K−20 values estimated with the minidisk infiltrometer, revealing probably soil structure with macropores and fractures. The input of hydrophobic organic matter, as a consequence of the addition of plant residues after the thinning treatment, resulted in slight differences in terms of both water drop penetration time, WDPT, and the index of water repellency, R, between thinned and control plots. Soil water repellency only affected unsaturated soil hydraulic conductivity measurements. Moreover, K−20 values showed a negative correlation with both WDPT and R, whereas Ks values did not, revealing that the soil hydrophobic behavior has no impact on saturated hydraulic conductivity.

Alonso-Sarría, F., Martínez-Hernández, C., Romero-Díaz, A., Cánovas-García, F., Gomariz-Castillo, F., 2016. Main environmental features leading to recent land abandonment in Murcia region (Southeast Spain). Land Degrad. Develop., 27, 654–670. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2447.

Angulo-Jaramillo, R., Vandervaere, J.-P., Roulier, S., Thony, J.-L., Gaudet, J.-P., Vauclin, M., 2000. Field measurement of soil surface hydraulic properties by disc and ring infiltrometers: A review and recent developments. Soil and Tillage Research, 55, 1–29. DOI: 10.1016/S0167-1987(00)00098-2.

Angulo-Jaramillo, R., Bagarello, V., Iovino, M., Lassabatère, L., 2016. Infiltration Measurements for Soil Hydraulic Characterization. Springer International Publishing.

Aussenac, G., Granier, A., 1988. Effects of thinning on water stress and growth in Douglas-fir. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 18, 100–105. DOI: 10.1139/x88-015.

Bachmann, J., Woche, S.K., Goebel, M.-O., Kirkham, M.B., Horton, R., 2003. Extended methodology for determining wetting properties of porous media. Water Resour. Res. 39, 1353. DOI: 10.1029/2003WR002143.

Bagarello, V., Di Prima, S., Iovino, M., Provenzano, G., 2014. Estimating field-saturated soil hydraulic conductivity by a simplified Beerkan infiltration experiment. Hydrological Processes, 28, 1095–1103. DOI:10.1002/hyp.9649.

Bautista, I., Pabón, C., Lull, C., González-Sanchís, M., Lidón, A., del Campo, A., 2015. Efectos de la gestión forestal en los flujos de nutrientes asociados al ciclo hidrológico en un bosque mediterráneo de Quercus Ilex. Cuadernos de la Sociedad Española de Ciencias Forestales, 41, 343–354.

Benito Rueda, E., Rodríguez-Alleres, M., Varela Teijeiro, E., 2016. Environmental factors governing soil water repellency dynamics in a Pinus Pinaster plantation in NW Spain. Land Degrad. Develop., 27, 719–728. DOI:10.1002/ldr.2370

Bens, O., Wahl, N.A., Fischer, H., Hüttl, R.F., 2006. Water infiltration and hydraulic conductivity in sandy cambisols: impacts of forest transformation on soil hydrological properties. Eur. J. Forest Res., 126, 101–109. DOI: 10.1007/s10342-006-0133-7.

Beven, K., Germann, P., 1982. Macropores and water flow in soils. Water Resour. Res., 18, 1311–1325. DOI: 10.1029/WR018i005p01311.

Bisantino, T., Bingner, R., Chouaib, W., Gentile, F., Trisorio Liuzzi, G., 2015. Estimation of runoff, peak discharge and sediment load at the event scale in a medium-size Mediterranean watershed using the Annagnps Model. Land Degrad. Develop., 26, 340–355. DOI:10.1002/ldr.2213.

Blanco-Canqui, H., Lal, R., Shipitalo, M.J., 2007. Aggregate disintegration and wettability for long-term management systems in the Northern Appalachians. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 71, 759. DOI:10.2136/sssaj2006.0001.

Blanco-Canqui, H., Lal, R., 2009. Extent of soil water repellency under long-term no-till soils. Geoderma, 149, 171–180. DOI: 10.1016/j.geoderma.2008.11.036.

Bodí, M.B., Muñoz-Santa, I., Armero, C., Doerr, S.H., Mataix-Solera, J., Cerdà, A., 2013. Spatial and temporal variations of water repellency and probability of its occurrence in calcareous Mediterranean rangeland soils affected by fires. Catena, 108, 14–25. DOI: 10.1016/j.catena.2012.04.002.

Brooks, K.N., Folliott, P.F., Gregersen, H.M., DeBano, L.F., 2003. Hydrology and the Management of Watersheds. 3rd Ed. Wiley-Blackwell, Ames, 574 p.

Buczko, U., Bens, O., 2006. Assessing soil hydrophobicity and its variability through the soil profile using two different methods. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 70, 718–727. DOI: 10.2136/sssaj2005.0183.

Buczko, U., Benz, O., Hangen, E., Brunotte, J., Huttl, R., 2003. Infiltration and macroporosity of a silt loam soil under two contrasting tillage systems. Landbauforschung Volkenrode 53, 181–190.

Buczko, U., Bens, O., Hüttl, R.F., 2006. Water infiltration and hydrophobicity in forest soils of a pine–beech transformation chronosequence. Journal of Hydrology, 331, 383–395. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2006.05.023.

Cammeraat, E.L.H., Cerdà, A., Imeson, A.C., 2010. Ecohydrological adaptation of soils following land abandonment in a semi-arid environment. Ecohydrol., 3, 421–430. DOI: 10.1002/eco.161.

Capriel, P., Beck, T., Borchert, H., Gronholz, J., Zachmann, G., 1995. Hydrophobicity of the organic matter in arable soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 27, 1453–1458. DOI: 10.1016/0038-0717(95)00068-P.

Cerdà, A., 1996. Seasonal variability of infiltration rates under contrasting slope conditions in southeast Spain. Geoderma, 69, 217–232. DOI: 10.1016/0016-7061(95)00062-3.

Cerdà, A., 1997. Seasonal changes of the infiltration rates in a Mediterranean scrubland on limestone. Journal of Hydrology, 198, 209–225. DOI: 10.1016/S0022-1694(96)03295-7.

Cerdà, A., 1999. Simuladores de lluvia y su aplicación a la Geomorfologia: estado de la cuestión. [A review of the rainfall simulators and its applications to the Geomorphology]. Cuadernos de investigación geográfica, 25, 45–84. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.18172/cig.1036

Cerdà, A., Doerr, S.H., 2007. Soil wettability, runoff and erodibility of major dry-Mediterranean land use types on calcareous soils. Hydrol. Process., 21, 2325–2336. DOI: 10.1002/hyp.6755.

Decagon Devices Inc., 2014. Minidisk Infiltrometer User’s Manual. Decagon Devices, Inc., Pullman, USA 24.

Dekker, L.W., Doerr, S.H., Oostindie, K., Ziogas, A.K., Ritsema, C.J., 2001. Water repellency and critical soil water content in a dune sand. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 65, 1667–1674. DOI: 10.2136/sssaj2001.1667.

DeBano, L.F., 1981. Water repellent soils: a state-of-the-art. US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station.

del Campo, A.D., Fernandes, T.J.G., Molina, A.J., 2014. Hydrology-oriented (adaptive) silviculture in a semiarid pine plantation: How much can be modified the water cycle through forest management? European Journal of Forest Research 133, 879–894. DOI: 10.1007/s10342-014-0805-7.

Di Prima, S., 2015. Automated single ring infiltrometer with a low-cost microcontroller circuit. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 118, 390–395. DOI: 10.1016/j.compag.2015.09.022.

Di Prima, S., Lassabatere, L., Bagarello, V., Iovino, M., Angulo-Jaramillo, R., 2016. Testing a new automated single ring infiltrometer for Beerkan infiltration experiments. Geoderma 262, 20–34. DOI: 10.1016/j.geoderma.2015.08.006.

Dlapa, P., Bodí, M.B., Mataix-Solera, J., Cerdà, A., Doerr, S.H., 2013. FT-IR spectroscopy reveals that ash water repellency is highly dependent on ash chemical composition. Catena, 108, 35–43. DOI: 10.1016/j.catena.2012.02.011.

Doerr, S.H., Shakesby, R.A., Walsh, R.P.D., 2000. Soil water repellency: its causes, characteristics and hydrogeomorphological significance. Earth-Science Reviews, 51, 33–65.

Dunn, G.H., Phillips, R.E., 1991. Macroporosity of a welldrained soil under no-till and conventional tillage. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 55, 817–823. DOI: 10.2136/sssaj1991.03615995005500030031x.

Ebel, B.A., Moody, J.A., 2013. Rethinking infiltration in wildfire-affected soils. Hydrol. Process., 27, 1510–1514. DOI: 10.1002/hyp.9696.

Ebel, B.A., Moody, J.A., Martin, D.A., 2012. Hydrologic conditions controlling runoff generation immediately after wildfire. Water Resour. Res., 48, W03529. DOI: 10.1029/2011WR011470.

Ellerbrock, R.H., Gerke, H.H., Bachmann, J., Goebel, M.-O., 2005. Composition of organic matter fractions for explaining wettability of three forest soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 69, 57–66. DOI: 10.2136/sssaj2005.0057.

Elrick, D.E., Reynolds, W.D., 1992. Methods for analyzing constant-head well permeameter data. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 56, 320–323. DOI: 10.2136/sssaj1992.03615995005600010052x.

Fernández, C., Vega, J.A., Jiménez, E., Fonturbel, T., 2011. Effectiveness of three post-fire treatments at reducing soil erosion in Galicia (NW Spain). Int. J. Wildland Fire, 20, 104–114.

Gallart, F., Latron, J., Llorens, P., Rabadà, D., 1997. Hydrological functioning of mediterranean mountain basins in Vallcebre, Catalonia: Some challenges for hydrological modelling. Hydrol. Process., 11, 1263–1272. DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1099-1085(199707)11:9<1263::AID-HYP556>3.0.CO;2-W.

García, F.J.M., Dekker, L.W., Oostindie, K., Ritsema, C.J., 2005. Water repellency under natural conditions in sandy soils of southern Spain. Aust. J. Soil Res., 43, 291–296.

García-Moreno, J., Gordillo-Rivero, Á.J., Zavala, L.M., Jordán, A., Pereira, P., 2013. Mulch application in fruit orchards increases the persistence of soil water repellency during a 15-years period. Soil and Tillage Research, 130, 62–68. DOI: 10.1016/j.still.2013.02.004.

Gee, G.W., Bauder, J.W., 1986. Particle-size analysis. In: Klute, A. (Ed.): Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 1: Physical and Mineralogical Methods. Soil Science Society of America, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, pp. 383–411.

Giovannini, G., Lucchesi, S., 1983. Effect of fire on hydrophobic and cementing substances of soil aggregates. Soil Science, 136, 231–236.

González-Peñaloza, F.A., Cerdà, A., Zavala, L.M., Jordán, A., Giménez-Morera, A., Arcenegui, V., 2012. Do conservative agriculture practices increase soil water repellency? A case study in citrus-cropped soils. Soil and Tillage Research, 124, 233–239. DOI: 10.1016/j.still.2012.06.015.

González-Sanchis, M., del Campo, A., Bautista, I., Lidón, A., García, A., Llull, C., 2013. Hydrological silviculture effects in a natural Quercus ilex forest. Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 15, EGU2013-313.

González-Sanchis, M., del Campo, A., Lidón, A., Lull, C., Bautista, I., García-Prats, A., Francés, F., 2015. Incorporación de criterios eco-hidrológicos en la gestión forestal: adaptación a la escasez de agua de una masa marginal de encina. Cuadernos de la Sociedad Española de Ciencias Forestales, 41, 211–218.

Gonzalez-Sosa, E., Braud, I., Dehotin, J., Lassabatère, L., Angulo-Jaramillo, R., Lagouy, M., Branger, F., Jacqueminet, C., Kermadi, S., Michel, K., 2010. Impact of land use on the hydraulic properties of the topsoil in a small French catchment. Hydrol. Process., 24, 2382–2399. DOI: 10.1002/hyp.7640.

Hallett, P.D., Young, I.M., 1999. Changes to water repellence of soil aggregates caused by substrate-induced microbial activity. European Journal of Soil Science, 50, 35–40. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2389.1999.00214.x.

Hallett, P.D., Baumgartl, T., Young, I.M., 2001. Subcritical water repellency of aggregates from a range of soil management practices. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 65, 184–190.

Heiskanen, J., Mäkitalo, K., 2002. Soil water-retention characteristics of Scots pine and Norway spruce forest sites in Finnish Lapland. Forest Ecology and Management, 162, 137–152. DOI: 10.1016/S0378-1127(01)00503-5.

Hibbert, A.R., 1983. Water yield improvement potential by vegetation management on western rangelands. JAWRA Journal of the American Water Resources Association 19, 375–381. DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-1688.1983.tb04594.x.

Keesstra, S., Bouma, J., Wallinga, J., Tittonell, P., Smith, P., Cerdà, A., Montanarella, L., Quinton, J.N., Pachepsky, Y., van der Putten, W.H., Bardgett, R.D., Moolenaar, S., Mol, G., Jansen, B., Fresco, L.O., 2016a. The significance of soils and soil science towards realization of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Soil, 2, 111–128. DOI: 10.5194/soil-2-111-2016.

Keesstra, S., Wittenberg, L., Maroulis, J., Sambalino, F., Malkinson, D., Cerdà, A., Pereira, P., 2016b. The influence of fire history, plant species and post-fire management on soil water repellency in a Mediterranean catchment: The Mount Carmel range, Israel. Catena. DOI: 10.1016/j.catena.2016.04.006.

Kemper, W.D., Rosenau, R.C., 1986. Aggregate stability and size distribution. In: Klute, A. (Ed.): Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 1: Physical and Mineralogical Methods. Soil Science Society of America, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, pp. 425–442.

Lassabatère, L., Angulo-Jaramillo, R., Soria Ugalde, J.M., Cuenca, R., Braud, I., Haverkamp, R., 2006. Beerkan estimation of soil transfer parameters through infiltration experiments—BEST. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 70, 521–532. DOI: 10.2136/sssaj2005.0026.

Lassabatere, L., Angulo-Jaramillo, R., Yilmaz, D., Winiarski, T., 2013. BEST method: Characterization of soil unsaturated hydraulic properties. In: Caicedo et al. (Eds): Advances in Unsaturated Soils. CRC Press, London, 527–532.

Lassabatere, L., Yilmaz, D., Peyrard, X., Peyneau, P.E., Lenoir, T., Šimůnek, J., Angulo-Jaramillo, R., 2014. New analytical model for cumulative infiltration into dual-permeability soils. Vadose Zone J. 13. doi:10.2136/vzj2013.10.0181

Lee, D.M., Elrick, D., Reynolds, W., Clothier, B.E., 1985. A comparison of three field methods for measuring saturated hydraulic conductivity. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 65, 563–573.

Lichner, L., Hallett, P., Feeney, D., Ďugová, O., Šír, M., Tesař, M., 2007. Field measurement of soil water repellency and its impact on water flow under different vegetation. Biologia, 62, 537–541. DOI: 10.2478/s11756-007-0106-4.

Lilliefors, H.W., 1967. On the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for normality with mean and variance unknown. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 62, 399–402. DOI: 10.1080/01621459.1967.10482916.

Molina, A.J., del Campo, A.D., 2012. The effects of experimental thinning on throughfall and stemflow: A contribution towards hydrology-oriented silviculture in Aleppo pine plantations. Forest Ecology and Management, 269, 206–213. DOI: 10.1016/j.foreco.2011.12.037.

Mollnau, C., Newton, M., Stringham, T., 2014. Soil water dynamics and water use in a western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) woodland. Journal of Arid Environments, 102, 117–126. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaridenv.2013.11.015.

Moody, J.A., Kinner, D.A., Úbeda, X., 2009. Linking hydraulic properties of fire-affected soils to infiltration and water repellency. Journal of Hydrology, 379, 291–303. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2009.10.015.

Nelson, D.W., Sommers, L.E., 1996. Total carbon, organic carbon, and organic matter. In: Sparks, D.L. (Ed.): Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 3: Chemical Methods. Soil Science Society of America, American Society of Agronomy, Madison, pp. 961–1010.

Nyman, P., Sheridan, G., Lane, P.N.J., 2010. Synergistic effects of water repellency and macropore flow on the hydraulic conductivity of a burned forest soil, south-east Australia. Hydrol. Process., 24, 2871–2887. DOI: 10.1002/hyp.7701.

Pereira, P., Cerdà, A., Úbeda, X., Mataix-Solera, J., Arcenegui, V., Zavala, L.M., 2015. Modelling the impacts of wildfire on ash thickness in a short-term period. Land Degrad. Develop., 26, 180–192. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2195.

Pirastru, M., Niedda, M., Castellini, M., 2014. Effects of maquis clearing on the properties of the soil and on the nearsurface hydrological processes in a semi-arid Mediterranean environment. Journal of Agricultural Engineering, 45, 176. DOI: 10.4081/jae.2014.428.

Prats, S.A., MacDonald, L.H., Monteiro, M., Ferreira, A.J.D., Coelho, C.O.A., Keizer, J.J., 2012. Effectiveness of forest residue mulching in reducing post-fire runoff and erosion in a pine and a eucalypt plantation in north-central Portugal. Geoderma, 191, 115–124. DOI: 10.1016/j.geoderma.2012.02.009.

Rawitz, E., Hazan, A., 1978. The effect of stabilized, hydrophobic aggregate layer properties on soil water regime and seedling emergence. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 42, 787–793. DOI: 10.2136/sssaj1978.03615995004200050028x.

Reynolds, W.D., Bowman, B.T., Brunke, R.R., Drury, C.F., Tan, C.S., 2000. Comparison of Tension Infiltrometer, Pressure Infiltrometer, and Soil Core Estimates of Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 64, 478–484. DOI:10.2136/sssaj2000.642478x.

Riechers, G.H., Beyers, J.L., Robichaud, P.R., Jennings, K., Kreutz, E., Moll, J., 2008. Effects of three mulch treatments on initial postfire erosion in north-central Arizona. In: Narog, M.G. (Ed.): Proc. 2002 Fire Conf.: Managing Fire and Fuels in the Remaining Wildlands and Open Spaces of the Southwestern United States. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-189. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA, pp. 107–113.

Roberson, E.B., Shennan, C., Firestone, M.K., Sarig, S., 1995. Nutritional management of microbial polysaccharide production and aggregation in an agricultural soil. Soil Science Society of America Journal 59, 1587–1594. DOI: 10.2136/sssaj1995.03615995005900060012x.

Ruiz-Colmenero, M., Bienes, R., Eldridge, D.J., Marques, M.J., 2013. Vegetation cover reduces erosion and enhances soil organic carbon in a vineyard in the central Spain. Catena, 104, 153–160. DOI: 10.1016/j.catena.2012.11.007.

SAS Institute Inc., 1999. SAS/STAT User’s Guide, Volume 1, Version 8.2. Cary, NC: Statistical Analysis Systems (SAS) Institute Inc.

Scott, D.F., 2000. Soil wettability in forested catchments in South Africa; as measured by different methods and as affected by vegetation cover and soil characteristics. Journal of Hydrology, 231–232, 87–104. DOI: 10.1016/S0022-1694(00)00186-4.

Shakesby, R.A., Boakes, D.J., Coelho, C. de O., Gonçalves, A.B., Walsh, R.P., 1996. Limiting the soil degradational impacts of wildfire in pine and eucalyptus forests in Portugal. Applied Geography, 16, 337–355. DOI: 10.1016/0143-6228(96)00022-7.

Šimon, T., Javůrek, M., Mikanová, O., Vach, M., 2009. The influence of tillage systems on soil organic matter and soil hydrophobicity. Soil and Tillage Research, 105, 44–48. DOI: 10.1016/j.still.2009.05.004.

Skinner, F.A., 1979. Rothamsted studies of soil structure VII. European Journal of Soil Science, 30, 473–481. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2389.1979.tb01002.x.

Tillman, R.W., Scotter, D.R., Wallis, M.G., Clothier, B.E., 1989. Water repellency and its measurement by using intrinsic sorptivity. Soil Research, 27, 637–644.

Verheijen, F.G.A., Cammeraat, L.H., 2007. The association between three dominant shrub species and water repellent soils along a range of soil moisture contents in semi-arid Spain. Hydrol. Process., 21, 2310–2316. DOI: 10.1002/hyp.6760.

Wang, Z., Feyen, J., Ritsema, C.J., 1998. Susceptibility and predictability of conditions for preferential flow. Water Resour. Res., 34, 2169–2182. DOI: 10.1029/98WR01761.

Wang, Z., Wu, Q.J., Wu, L., Ritsema, C.J., Dekker, L.W., Feyen, J., 2000. Effects of soil water repellency on infiltration rate and flow instability. Journal of Hydrology, 231, 265–276.

Wang, Y., Fan, J., Cao, L., Liang, Y., 2016. Infiltration and runoff generation under various cropping patterns in the Red Soil region of China. Land Degrad. Develop., 27, 83–91. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2460.

Warrick, A.W., 1998. Spatial variability. In: Hillel, D. (Ed.), Environmental Soil Physics. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, pp. 655–675.

Watson, K.W., Luxmoore, R.J., 1986. Estimating macroporosity in a forest watershed by use of a tension infiltrometer. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 50, 578–582.

Wessel, A.T., 1988. On using the effective contact angle and the water drop penetration time for classification of water repellency in dune soils. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms, 13, 555–561. DOI: 10.1002/esp.3290130609.

Wu, L., Pan, L., 1997. A generalized solution to infiltration from single-ring infiltrometers by scaling. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 61, 1318–1322.

Wu, L., Pan, L., Mitchell, J., Sanden, B., 1999. Measuring saturated hydraulic conductivity using a generalized solution for single-ring infiltrometers. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 63, 788–792. DOI: 10.2136/sssaj1999.634788x.

Zhang, R., 1997. Determination of soil sorptivity and hydraulic conductivity from the disk infiltrometer. Soil Science Society of America Journal 61, 1024–1030. DOI: 10.2136/sssaj1997.03615995006100040005x.

Zhang, L., Dawes, W.R., Walker, G.R., 2001. Response of mean annual evapotranspiration to vegetation changes at catchment scale. Water Resour. Res. 37, 701–708. DOI: 10.1029/2000WR900325.

Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics

The Journal of Institute of Hydrology SAS Bratislava and Institute of Hydrodynamics CAS Prague

Journal Information


IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 1.714
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.639



CiteScore 2017: 1.91

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.599
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 1.084

Cited By

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 555 555 38
PDF Downloads 153 153 13