This study explored the effect of soil water repellency (SWR) on soil hydrophysical properties with depth. Soils were sampled from two distinctly wettable and water repellent soil profiles at depth increments from 0-60 cm. The soils were selected because they appeared to either wet readily (wettable) or remain dry (water repellent) under field conditions. Basic soil properties (MWD, SOM, θv) were compared to hydrophysical properties (Ks, Sw, Se, Sww, Swh, WDPT, RIc, RIm and WRCT) that characterise or are affected by water repellency. Our results showed both soil and depth affected basic and hydrophysical properties of the soils (p <0.001). Soil organic matter (SOM) was the major property responsible for water repellency at the selected depths (0-60). Water repellency changes affected moisture distribution and resulted in the upper layer (0-40 cm) of the repellent soil to be considerably drier compared to the wettable soil. The water repellent soil also had greater MWDdry and Ks over the entire 0-60 cm depth compared to the wettable soil. Various measures of sorptivity, Sw, Se, Sww, Swh, were greater through the wettable than water repellent soil profile, which was also reflected in field and dry WDPT measurements. However, the wettable soil had subcritical water repellency, so the range of data was used to compare indices of water repellency. WRCT and RIm had less variation compared to WDPT and RIc. Estimating water repellency using WRCT and RIm indicated that these indices can detect the degree of SWR and are able to better classify SWR degree of the subcritical-repellent soil from the wettable soil.
Amezketa, E., 1999. Soil aggregate stability: a review. J. Sustain. Agric., 14, 83-151.
Bachmann, J., Deurer, M., Arye, G., 2007. Water-repellent soil: 1. Development of a contact angle-dependent waterretention model. Vadose Zone J., 6, 436-445.
Bachmann, J., Goebel M.-O., Woche S.K., 2013. Small-scale contact angle mapping on undisturbed soil surfaces. J. Hydrol. Hydromech., 61, 3-8.
Bauters, T.W.J., Steenhuisa T.S., DiCarlo, D.A., Nieber, J.L., Dekker, L.W., Ritsema, C.J., Parlange, J.Y., Haverkamp, R. 2000. Physics of water repellent soils. J. Hydrol., 231-232: 233-243.
Beatty, S.M., Smith, J.E., 2014. Infiltration of water and ethanol solutions in water repellent post wildfire soils. J. Hydrol, 514: 233-248.
Black, G.R., Hartge, K.H., 1986. Bulk density. In: Klute A. (Ed.): Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 1. Physical and Mineralogical Methods. 2nd ed. ASA/SSSA Monograph 9(1), Madison, WI, USA, pp. 374-380.
Chaudhari, P.R., Ahire, D.V., Ahire, V.D., Chkravarty, M., Maity, S., 2013. Soil bulk density as related to soil texture, organic matter content and available total nutrients of Coimbatore soil. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 3, 1-8.
Chenu, C., Le Bissonnais, Y., Arrouays, D., 2000. Organic matter influence on clay wettability and soil aggregate stability. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 64, 1479-1486.
Clothier, B.E., Vogeler, I., Magesan, G.N., 2000. The breakdown of water repellency and solute transport through a hydrophobic soil. J. Hydrol., 231-232, 255-264.
Cosentino, D., Hallett, P.D., Michel, J.C., Chenu, C., 2010. Do different methods for measuring the hydrophobicity of soil aggregates give the same trends in soil amended with residue? Geoderma, 159, 221-227.
Dekker, L.W., Ritsema, C.J., 1994. How water moves in a water repellent sandy soil: potential and actual water repellency. Water Resour. Res., 30, 2507-2517.
Dekker, L.W., Doerr, S.H., Oostindie, K., Ziogas, A.K., Ritsema, C.J., 2001. Water repellency and critical soil water content in a dune sand. Soil. Sci. Soc. Am. J., 65, 1667-1674.
Diehl, D., Schneckenburger, T., Krüger, J., Goebel, M.-O., Woche, S.K., Schwarz, J., Shchegolikhina, A., Lang, F., Marschner, B., Thiele-Bruhn, S., Bachmann, J., Schaumann, G.E., 2014. Effect of multivalent cations, temperature and aging on soil organic matter interfacial properties. Environ. Chem., 11, 709-718.
Doerr, S.H., Shakesby, R.A.,Walsh, R.P.D., 2000. Soil water repellency: its causes, characteristics and hydrogeomorphological significance. Earth-Science Reviews, 51, 33-65.
Doerr, S.H., Ritsema, C.J., Dekker, L.W., Scott, D.F., Carter, D., 2007. Water repellence of soils: new insights and emerging research needs. Hydrol. Process., 21, 2223-2228.
Eusufzai, M.K., Fujii, K., 2012. Effect of organic matter amendment on hydraulic and pore characteristics of a clay loam soil. Open Journal of Soil Science, 2, 372-381.
Goebel, M.-O., Bachmann, J., Woche, S.K., Fischer, W.R., 2005. Soil wettability, aggregate stability, and the decomposition of soil organic matter. Geoderma, 128, 80-93.
Goebel, M.-O., Bachmann, J., Reichstein, M., Janssens, I.A., Guggenberger, G., 2011. Soil water repellency and its implications for organic matter decomposition - is there a link to extreme climatic events? Global Change Biol., 17, 2640-2656.
Haghighi, F., Gorji, M., Shorafa, M., 2010. A study of the effects of land use changes on soil physical properties and organic matter. Land Degrad. Develop., 21, 496-502.
Hallett, P.D., 2008. A brief overview of the causes, impacts and amelioration of soil water repellency - a review. Soil and Water Research, 3, S21-S29.
Hallett, P.D., Baumgartl, T., Young, I.M., 2001. Subcritical water repellency of aggregates from a range of soil management practices. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 65, 184-190.
Jarvis, N., Etana, A., Stagnitti, F., 2008. Water repellency, nearsaturated infiltration and preferential solute transport in a macroporous clay soil. Geoderma, 143, 223-230.
Johnson, M.S., Lehmann, J., Steenhuis, T.S., Oliveira, L.V., Fernandes, E.C.M., 2005. Spatial and temporal variability of soil water repellency of Amazonian pastures. Aust. J. Soil Res., 43, 319-326.
Jordán, A., Zavala, L.M., Mataix-Solera, J., Nava, A.L., Alanís, N., 2011. Effect of fire severity on water repellency and aggregate stability on Mexican volcanic soils. Catena, 84, 136-147.
Keizer, J.J., Doerr, S.H., Malvar, M.C., Ferreira, A.J.D., Pereira, V.M.F.G., 2007. Temporal and spatial variations in topsoil water repellency throughout a crop-rotation cycle on sandy soil in north-central Portugal. Hydrol. Process., 21, 2317-2324.
Kemper, W.D., Chepil, W.S. 1965. Size distribution of aggregates. In: Black, C.A. (Ed.): Methods of Soil Analysis, Part I. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI, pp. 499-510.
Klute, A., Dirksen, C., 1986. Hydraulic conductivity and diffusivity: laboratory methods. In: Klute, A. (Ed.): Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 1. Physical and Mineralogical Methods. 2nd ed. ASA/SSSA Monograph 9(1), Madison, WI, pp. 687-732.
Kodešová, R., Rohošková, M., Žigová, A., 2009. Comparison of aggregate stability within six soil profiles under conventional tillage using various laboratory tests. Biologia, 64, 550-554.
Lal, R., 2011. Organic matter, effects on soil physical properties and processes. In: Glinski J., Horabik J., Lipiec J. (Eds.): Encyclopedia of Agrophysics. Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 528-534.
Lamparter, A., Bachmann, J., Deurer, M., Woche, S.K., 2010. Applicability of ethanol for measuring intrinsic hydraulic properties of sand with various water repellency level. Vadose Zone J., 9, 445-450.
Le Bissonnais, Y., 1996. Aggregate stability and assessment of soil crustability and erodibility: I. Theory and methodology. Eur. J. Soil. Sci., 47, 425-443.
Leelamanie, D.A.L., 2014. Initial water repellency affected organic matter depletion rates of manure amended soils in Sri Lanka. J. Hydrol. Hydromech., 62, 309-315.
Lichner, Ľ., Holko, L., Zhukova, N., Schacht, K., Rajkai, K., Fodor, N., Sándor, R., 2012. Plant and biological soil crust influence the hydrophysical parameters and water flow in an aeolian sandy soil. J. Hydrol. Hydromech., 60, 309-318.
Lichner, L., Hallett, P.D., Drongová, Z., Czachor, H., Kovacik, L., Mataix-Solera, J., Homolák, M., 2013. Algae influence hydrophysical parameters of a sandy soil. Catena, 108, 58-68.
Madsen, M.D., Zvirzdin, D.L., Petersen, S.L., Hopkins, B.G., Roundy B.A., Chandler, D.G., 2011. Soil water repellency within a burned piñon-juniper woodland: spatial distribution, severity, and ecohydrologic implications. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 75, 1543-1553.
Müller, M., Deurer, M., 2011. Review of the remediation strategies for soil water repellency. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ., 144, 208-221.
Nesper, M., Bünemann, E.K., Fonte, S.J., Rao, I.M., Velásquez, J.E., Ramirez, B., Hegglin, D., Frossard, E., Oberson, A., 2015. Pasture degradation decreases organic P content of tropical soils due to soil structural decline. Geoderma, 257-258, 123-133.
Orfánus, T., Bedrna, Z., Lichner, L., Hallett, P.D., Kňava, K., Sebíň, M., 2008. Spatial variability of water repellency in pine forest soil. Soil & Water Res., 3, Special Issue 1, S123- S129.
Orfánus, T., Dlapa, P., Fodor, N., Rajkai, K., Sándor, R., Nováková, K., 2014. How severe and subcritical water repellency determines the seasonal infiltration in natural and cultivated sandy soils. Soil & Tillage Research, 135, 49-59.
Pekárová, P., Pekár, J., Lichner, Ľ., 2015. A new method for estimating soil water repellency index. Biologia, 70, 1450-1455.
SAS Institute, 2004. SAS User’s Guide: Statistics. Ver. 9. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, N.C.
Sepehrnia, N., Mahboubi, A.A., Mosaddeghi, M.R., Safari Sinejani, A.A., Khodakaramian, G., 2014. Escherichia coli transport through intact gypsiferous and calcareous soils during saturated and unsaturated flows. Geoderma, 217-218, 83-89.
Sepehrnia, N., Hajabbasi, M.A., Afyuni, M., Lichner, Ľ., 2016. Extent and persistence of water repellency in two Iranian soils. Biologia, 71, 10, 1137-1143.
Shaver, T., 2010. Crop residue and soil physical properties. In: Proc. 22nd Annual Central Plains Irrigation Conference, Kearney, NE, USA, pp. 22-27.
Soil Survey Division Staff, 1993. Soil survey manual. Soil Conservation Service. U.S. Department of Agriculture Handbook 18, 437 p.
Täumer, K., Stoffregen, H., Wessolek, G., 2005. Determination of repellency distribution using soil organic matter and water content. Geoderma, 125, 107-115.
Tillman, R.W., Scotter, D.R., Wallis, M.G., Clothier, B.E., 1989. Water-repellency and its measurement by using intrinsic sorptivity. Aust. J. Soil Res., 27, 637-644.
Urbanek, E., Horn, R., Smucker, A.J.M., 2014. Tensile and erosive strength of soil macro-aggregates from soils under different management system. J. Hydrol. Hydromech., 62, 324-333.
Vogelmann, E.S., Reichert, J.M., Prevedello J., Awe G.O., Mataix-Solera, J., 2013. Can occurrence of soil hydrophobicity promote the increase of aggregates stability? Catena, 110, 24-31.
Walkly, A., Black, I.A. 1934. An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter, and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science, 37, 29-38.
Wallis, M.G., Horne, D.J., 1992. Soil water repellency. In: Stewart B.A. (Ed.): Advances in Soil Science, Vol. 20. Springer, New York, pp. 91-146.
WRB, 2014. World Reference Base for Soil Resources 2014. 2nd edition. World Soil Resources Reports No. 106. FAO, Rome.
Zamani, J., Afyunia, M., Sepehrnia, N., Schulin, R., 2016. Opposite effects of two organic wastes on the physical quality of an agricultural soil. Arch. Agron. Soil Sci., 62, 3, 413-427.