Self-Employment and Entrepreneurship: A Theoretical Approach

Open access

Abstract

Purpose: The purpose of this article is to position self-employment within an entrepreneurship paradigm. The authors create a structured approach to the existing concepts and definitions of entrepreneurship and self-employment, as well as interrelations between them. The text proposes a framework to analyze these two phenomena by establishing their categorization.

Methodology: An in-depth critical review of selected literature of the classical and contemporary entrepreneurship theories and definitions in the context of self-employment.

Findings: The main results of the study show major discrepancies between existing definitions and approaches in entrepreneurship and self-employment theories and the official EU definitions.

Practical implications: The findings offer a starting point for quantitative, methodologically sound, comparative studies on entrepreneurship and self-employment and their role in the contemporary labor market. The proposed categorization structures current terminological chaos and standardizes the terms and tools used in labor market statistics.

Originality: The article comprises a set of notions related to the concept of both entrepreneurship and self-employment. The text positions self-employment within an entrepreneurship paradigm and offers new arguments in the discussion on their similarities and differences. The summary offers an original idea that confronts self-employment forms with selected entrepreneurship characteristics.

Ahmad, N. and Seymour, R.G. (2008). Defining Entrepreneurial Activity. Definitions Supporting Frameworks for Data Collection. OECD Statistics Working Papers 2008/01. Paris: OECD, https://doi.org/10.1787/243164686763

Amit, R., Glosten, L. and Mueller, E. (1993). Challenges to theory development in entrepreneurship research. Journal of Management Studies, 30: 815–834, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.1993.tb00327.x

Audretsch, D., Callejon, M. and Aranguren, J. (2008). Entrepreneurship, Small Firms and Self-employment. In: M.D. Parrilli, P. Bianchi and R. Sugden (eds.), High Technology, Productivity and Networks-A Systemic Approach to SME Develop, https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230583726_6

Baron, R.A. (2012). Entrepreneurship: An Evidence-based Guide. Edward Elgar Publishing.

Baum, J.R., Locke, E.A. and Kirkpatrick, S. (1998). A longitudinal study of the relation of vision and vision communication in venture growth in entrepreneurial firms. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83(1): 45–54, https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.83.1.43

Baumol, W.J. (1993). Entrepreneurship, management, and the structure of payoffs. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

Baumol, W.J. (1990), Entrepreneurship: Productive, Unproductive, and Destructive. Journal of Political Economy, 98(5): 893–921.

Baumol, W.J. (1968), Entrepreneurship in Economic Theory. The American Economic Review, 58(2): 64–71, https://ssrn.com/abstract=1506344

Bengtsson, N. and Peterson, K. (2008). What are they talking about when they talk about entrepreneurship? Jönköping University, https://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:3593/FULLTEXT01.pdf (11.09.2017).

Berlin, N.A. (2015). Animal Spirits Driving Economic Change: Empirical Evidence from Entrepreneurs. Campus Verlag.

Bjerke, B. (2007). Understanding Entrepreneurship. Edward Elgar Publishing.

Blanchflower, D., Oswald, A.J. and Stutzer, A. (2001). Latent entrepreneurship across nations. European Economic Review, 45 (4–6): 680–691, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0014-2921(01)00137-4

Blankenship, M. (2017). 8 Successful People Who Proved Persistence Beats Perfection, https://www.success.com/article/8-successful-people-who-proved-persistence-beats-perfection (11.09.2017).

Blaug, M. (1994). Teoria ekonomii: Ujęcie retrospektywne. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.

Block, J. and Sandner, Ph. (2009). Necessity and Opportunity Entrepreneurs and Their Duration in Self-Employment: Evidence from German Micro Data. Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, 9(2), https://doi.org/10.1007/s10842-007-0029-3

Brown, T.E. and Uljin, J.M. (2004). Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Culture. The Interaction between Technology, Progress and Economic Growth, Business and Economics. Edward Elgar Publ. Ltd., https://doi.org/10.4337/9781845420550

Busenitz, L.W. (1999). Entrepreneurial Risk and Strategic Decision Making. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 35(3): 325–340.

Bygrave, W. and Hofer, C. (1991). Theorizing about Entrepreneurship. Baylor University, https://www.slideshare.net/namekuwanday/theorizing-about-entrepreneurship-45779199 (7.09.2017).

Casson, M.C. (1990) (ed.). Entrepreneurship. Vol. 13. International Library of Critical Writings in Economics.

Casson, M.C. (2003). The Entrepreneur: An Economic Theory. Edward Elgar Publ.

Casson, M.C. (1991). Entrepreneurship. In: The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics, online (26.09.2017).

Chmielecki, M. and Sułkowski, Ł. (2016). Metaphors of Entrepreneurship among Polish Students: Preliminary Research Findings. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 4(4): 141–151, http://dx.doi.org/10.15678/EBER.2016.040409

Christensen, C.M. (1997). The Innovator’s Dilemma: When New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press, http://www.hbs.edu/faculty/Pages/item.aspx?num=46

Churchill, N. and Levis, V. (1983). The Five Stages of Small Business Growth. Harvard Business Review, May–June.

Cieślik, J. (2016). Czy samozatrudnieni to przedsiębiorcy, Rzeczpospolita, 12.12.2016, http://www.rp.pl/Opinie/312129888-Czy-samozatrudnieni-to-przedsiebiorcy.html#ap-1

Cieślik, J. (2015). Capturing Statistically the “Intermediate Zone Between the Employee and Employer Firm Owner. International Review of Entrepreneurship, 13(3).

Congregado, E., Golpe, A.A. and Carmona, M. (2010). Is it a good policy to promote self-employment for job creation? Evidence from Spain. Journal of Policy Modeling, 32(6): 828–842, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpolmod.2010.09.001

Cook, M. and Plunkett, L.B. (2006). Collective Entrepreneurship An Emerging Phenomenon in Producer-Owned Organizations. Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, 38(2): 421–28, https://doi.org/10.1017/S1074070800022458

Cranford, C.J., Vosko, L.F. and Zukewich, N. (2003). Precarious employment in the Canadian labor market: A statistical portrait. Just Labor: A Canadian Journal of Work and Society, 3, Fall.

Cuervo, A., Ribeiro, D. and Roig, S. (2007). Entrepreneurship: Concepts, Theory and Perspective. Introduction. Berlin: Springer, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-48543-8

Cullen, J.B., Johnson, J.L. and Parboteeah, K.P. (2014). National rates of opportunity entrepreneurship activity: Insights from institutional anomie theory. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 38(4): 775–806, https://doi.org/10.1111/etap.12018

Davidsson, P. (2003). The domain of entrepreneurship research: Some suggestions. In: J. Katz and D. Shepherd (eds.), Advances in entrepreneurship, firm emergence and growth. Elsevier, Oxford.

Davidsson, P. (2005). The types and contextual fit of entrepreneurial processes. International Journal of Entrepreneurship Education, 2(4), https://doi.org/10.1016/S1074-7540(03)06010-0

Davidsson, P. and Henrekson, M. (2002). Determinants of the prevalence of start-ups and high-growth firms. Small Business Economics, 19(2): 81–10, https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1016264116508

de Meza, D. and Southey, C. (1996). The Borrower’s Curse: Optimism, Finance and Entrepreneurship. Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, 106(435): 375–386, https://doi.org/10.2307/2235253

Demirgüç-Kunt, A., Klapper, L., Panos, G. (2007). The origins of self-employment. Development Research Group. Washington DC: World Bank.

Douglas, E.J. and Shepherd, D.A. (2000). Entrepreneurship as a utility maximizing response. Journal of Business Venturing, 15: 231–251, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0883-9026(98)00008-1

Drucker, P.F. (1985). Innovation and Entrepreneurship. New York: Harper and Row Publishers. Eckhardt, F. and Eade, J. (eds.) (2011). The Ethnically Diverse City, Future Urban Research in Europe. BWV Verlag.

Elkjaer, J.R. (1991). The Entrepreneur in Economic Theory: An Example of the Development and Influence of a Concept. History of European Ideas, 13(6): 805–815, https://doi.org/10.1016/0191-6599(91)90143-M

Etzioni, A.(1987) Entrepreneurship, Adaptation and Legitimation. A Macro-Behavioral Perspective. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 8(1987): 175–189, https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-2681(87)90002-3

EU SWD (2016). European Commission Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and the Council on the conditions of entry and residence of third-country nationals for the purposes of highly skilled employment and repealing Directive 2009/50/EC https://ec.europa.eu/home-affairs/sites/homeaffairs/files/what-we-do/policies/european-agenda-migration/proposal-implementation-package/docs/20160607/directive_conditions_entry_residence_third-country_nationals_highly_skilled_employment_impact_assessment_part_1_en.pdf (31.10.2017).

Evans, D.S. and Jovanovic, B. (1989). An Estimated Model of Entrepreneurial Choice under Liquidity Constraints. Journal of Political Economy, 97: 111–119, https://doi.org/10.1086/261629

Filion, L.J. (2008). Defining the Entrepreneur. Complexity and Multi-Dimensional Systems. Some Reflections, HEC Montreal, Working Paper August, https://doi.org/10.4337/9781849808453.00011

Filion, L.J. (2011). Defining the entrepreneur. In: L.-P. Dana (eds.), World Encyclopedia of Entrepreneurship. Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar.

Folta, T.B., Delmar, F. and Wennberg, K. (2010). Hybrid Entrepreneurship, IFN Working paper, No. 825.

Formaini, R.L. (2001). The Engine of Capitalist Process: Entrepreneurs in Economic Theory. Economic and Financial Review, Fourth Quarter: 2–11.

Gartner, W.B. (1988). Who is the entrepreneur? is the wrong question. American Journal of Small Business, 12: 11–32, https://doi.org/10.1177/104225878801200401

Garud, R. and Van de Ven, A. (1992). An empirical evaluation of the internal corporate venturing process. Strategic Management Journal, 13: 93–109.

Gimenez-Roche, G.A. (2011). A Socially Situated Praxeological Approach to Entrepreneurship. The Journal of Entrepreneurship, 20(2): 159–187.

Glapinski, A. (2012). Schumpeterowska teoria przedsiębiorcy, czyli skąd się bierze pies. Konsumpcja i Rozwój, 1.

Glinka, B. and Gudkova, S. (2011). Przedsiębiorczość. Warszawa: Wolters Kluwer Polska.

Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM). http://www.gemconsortium.org/report (18.02.2018).

Griffin, R. and Karayiannis, A.D. (2002), T. Veblen’s Evolutionary Theory of Entrepreneurship. History of Economic Ideas, 10(2): 61–83.

Guerra, G. and Patuelli, R. (2016). The Role of Job Satisfaction in Transitions into Self-Employment. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 40(3), https://doi.org/10.1111/etap.12133

Gunning, J. (1993). Entrepreneurists and Firmists: Knight vs. the Modern Theory of 4the Firm. Journal of the History of Economic Thought, 15 March: 31–53.

Gunning, J.P. (2004). Praxeological Entrepreneurship, November 8, http://www.constitution.org/pd/gunning/subjecti/workpape/cowen.pdf (15.10.2017), https://doi.org/10.1017/S1053837200005253

Gurrieri, A.R. (2013). Networking Entrepreneurs. The Journal of Socio-Economics, 47: 193–204, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socec.2013.09.007

Hayek, F.A. (1949). The Intellectuals and Socialism. University of Chicago Law Review, 16(3), https://doi.org/10.2307/1597903

Henrekson, M. (2007). Entrepreneurship and Institutions, IFN Working Paper. No. 707, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.

Hebert, R.F. and Link, A. (1989). In Search of the Meaning of Entrepreneurship Small Business Economics, 1(1): 39–49.

High, J.C. (1982). Alertness and Judgement: Comment on Kirzner. In: I.M. Kirzner (ed.), Method, Process and Austrian Economics: Essays in Honor of Ludvig von Mises. Lexington, MA.

Horvitz, S. (2007). Klein on Hayek and Entrepreneurship. In: Fu-Lai T. Yu, D.S. Kwan (2016). Chinese Entrepreneurship: An Austrian Economics Perspective. London–New York: Routledge, Taylor and Francis.

Hughes, K.D. (2006). Exploring motivation and success among Canadian women entrepreneurs. Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, 19(2): 107–120, https://doi.org/10.1080/08276331.2006.10593362.

Johansson, E. (2005). An Estimate of Self-Employment Income Underreporting in Finland. Nordic Journal of Political Economy, 31: 99–109.

Kahneman, D. and Tversky, A. (1979). Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision under Risk. Econometrica, 47(2), http://www.jstor.org/stable/1914185?origin=crossref (12.09.2017).

Kalleberg, A.L., Reskin, B.F. and Hudson, K. (2000) Bad jobs in America: standard and non-standard employment relations and job quality in the United States. American Sociological Review, 65(2): 256–278, https://doi.org/10.2307/2657440

Kauffman Foundation Report (2017). Zero Barriers: Three Mega Trends Shaping the Future of Entrepreneurship.

Kirzner, I.M. (1973). Competition and Entrepreneurship. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Kirzner, I.M. (1982). Uncertainty, discovery, and human action: A study of the entrepreneurial profile in the Misesian system. In: I.M. Kirzner (ed.), Method, Process and Austrian Economics. Canada DC Heath.

Kirzner, I.M. (2008). The Alert and Creative Entrepreneur: A Clarification, IFN Working Paper No. 760, 2008, Research Institute of Industrial Economics, August 11.

Klein, P.G. (2007). Organizations and Markets. Hayek and Entrepreneurship, https://organizationsandmarkets.com/2007/11/07/hayek-and-entrepreneurship/ (3.10.2017).

Klein, P.G. (2010). The Capitalist and The Entrepreneur. Essays on Organizations and Markets, Mises Institute, http://store.mises.org/Capitalist-and-The-Entrepreneur-The-P10373.aspx (10.10.2017).

Knight, F.H. (1921). Risk Uncertainty and Profit. Signalman Publishing.

Kreft, S.F. and Sobel, R.S. (2003). Public Policy, Entrepreneurship, and Economic Growth. West Virginia University Entrepreneurship Center Working Paper, http://www.be.wvu.edu/ec/research.htm (29.10.2017).

Krueger, N.F. and Brazeal, D.V. (1994). Entrepreneurial Potential and Potential Entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Spring: 91–104, https://doi.org/10.1177/104225879401800307

Kshetri, N. (2014). Global Entrepreneurship: Environment and Strategy. Routledge.

Kumar, K.A. and Raj, J.R. (2013). Driving the Economy through Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Emerging Agenda for Technology Management. Springer, New Delhi, Heildelberg.

Kumar, S.A., Poornima, S.C.M., Abraham, K. and Jayashree, K. (2003). Entrepreneurship Development, New Age International Publishers. New Delhi.

Kunasz, M. (2014). Analiza determinant wyboru momentu rozpoczęcia własnej działalności gospodarczej. Management and Business Administration. Central Europe, 22(2): 65–79, https://mbace.eu/resources/html/article/details?id=2006 (9.11.2017).

Kuratko, D.F. (2016). Entrepreneurship: Theory, Process and Practice. Cengage Learning, 10th ed.

Landstrom, H. (2010). Pioneers in Entrepreneurship and Small Business Research. Heidelberg: Springer.

Leibenstein, H. (1968). Entrepreneurship and Development. The American Economic Review, 58(2): 72–83.

Louie, A.M., Ostry, A.S., Quinlan, M., Keegel, T., Shoveller, J. and LaMontagne, A.D. (2006). Empirical study of employment arrangements and precariousness in Australia. Relations Industrielles/Industrial Relations, 61(3): 465–486, https://doi.org/10.7202/014186ar

Marshall, A. (1890). Principles of Economics. An Introductory volume, https://eet.pixel-online.org/files/etranslation/original/Marshall,%20Principles%20of%20Economics.pdf

McDaniel, B.A. (2005). A Contemporary View of Joseph A. Schumpeter’s Theory of the Entrepreneur. Journal of Economic Issues, 39(2): 485–489, https://doi.org/10.1080/00213624.2005.11506826

McKeown, T. and Phillips, K. (2014). Self-employment or entrepreneurship: What’s in a name? (Perhaps quite a lot?). Small Enterprise Association of Australia and New Zealand 27th Annual SEAANZ Conference Proceedings, http://www.seaanz.org/sites/seaanz/documents/2014SEAANZConference/SEAANZ-2014-McKeown-Phillips.pdf (11.09.2017).

Meadows, M. (2016). Self-discipline for Entrepreneurs: How to develop and Maintain, Self-Discipline as an Entrepreneur. Meadows Publ.

Millán, J.M., Congregado, E. and Román, C. (2010). Determinants of Self-employment dynamics and their implications on entrepreneurial policy effectiveness. Lecturas de Economía, 72: 45–76.

Mises, L. von (1949). Human Action. In: P.J. Boettke and Ch.J. Coyne (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Austrian Economics, online (access 28.09.2017).

Mises, L. von. (1951). Profit and Loss. In Mises, Planning for Freedom. South Holland, Ill.: Libertarian Press.

Mises, L. von. (2000). Human Action: A Treatise on Economics. Ludwig von Mises Institute, http://www.mises.org/humanaction.asp.

Mosakowski, E. (1998). Entrepreneurial Resources, Organizational Choices, and Competitive Outcomes. Organization Science, 9: 625–643, https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.9.6.625

Muehlberger, U. (2007). Dependent Self-Employment. Workers on the Border between Employment and Self-employment. Palgrave Macmillan, https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230288782

Mühlböck, M., Warmuth, J.R., Holienka, M. and Kittel, B. (2017). Desperate entrepreneurs: no opportunities, no skills. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11365-017-0472-5

Noga, A. (2009). Teorie przedsiębiorstw. Warszawa: PWE.

Nooteboom, B. (2002). Innovation and diffusion in small firms: Theory and evidence, Entrepreneurship. Critical perspective on business and management. London: Routledge.

OECD – Missing Entrepreneurs (2015). Self-employment and Entrepreneurship. Paris: OECD Publishing.

OECD Economic Surveys Poland (2014). Paris: OECD Publishing.

OECD Employment Outlook (2016). Paris: OECD Publishing.

OECD Entrepreneurship at a glance (2011). Paris: OECD Publishing.

OECD Entrepreneurship at a glance (2017). Paris: OECD Publishing.

Parker, S.C. (2009). The Economics of Entrepreneurship. UK: Cambridge University Press, https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511817441

Peneder, M. (2009). The Meaning of Entrepreneurship: A Modular Concept, Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, 77, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10842-009-0052-7

Perulli, A. (2003). Economically Dependent/Quasi-subordinate (Parasubordinate) Employment: Legal, Social and Economic Aspects. Brussels: European Commission.

Piecuch, T. (2010). Przedsiębiorczość. Podstawy teoretyczne. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo CH Beck.

Propstmeier, J. (2011). Antecedents of Entrepreneurial Behavior – Opportunity Recognition, Entrepreneurial Intention and The Role of Human Capital, Inaugural Dissertation. Munchen: Ludwig-Maximilians Universitat, Munchen.

Purcell, K. (2000). Changing boundaries in employment and organizations. In: K. Purcell (ed.), Changing Boundaries in Employment. Bristol: Bristol Academic Press.

Reich, R.B. (1987). Entrepreneurship reconsidered: The team as hero. Harvard Business Review, May.

Ricketts, M. (2006). Theories of entrepreneurship: historical development and critical assessment. In: M. Casson, B. Yeung, A. Basu and N. Wadeson (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Entrepreneurship. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Robinson, D.A., Goleby, M. and Hosgood, N. (2006). Entrepreneurship as a Values and Leadership Paradigm. Regional Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, November.

Rocha, V.C. (2012). The Entrepreneur in Economic Theory: From an Invisible Man Toward a New Research Field. FEP Working Paper 459, School of Economics and Management, University of Porto.

Rothbard, M. (1995). Classical Economics: An Austrian Perspective on the History of Economic Thought, vol. 2. Hants, U.K.: Edward Elgar.

Rothbard, M.N. (1962) (2004). What is Entrepreneurship? Ludwig von Mises Institute, http://www.mises.org/story/1530 (21.09.2017).

Salgado-Banda, H. (2005). Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth: An Empirical Analysis, Journal of Development Entrepreneurship, 1(12).

Sauka, A. (2008). Productive, Unproductive, Destructive Entrepreneurship: A Theoretical and Empirical Exploration. William Davidson Institute, Working Paper No. 917.

Schumpeter, J. (1961). Theory of Economic Developments. New York: Oxford University Press.

Shane, S. A. (2003). A General Theory of Entrepreneurship: The Individual-Opportunity Nexus. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, https://doi.org/10.4337/9781781007990

Shane, S.A. (2008). The illusions of entrepreneurship: The costly myths that entrepreneurs, investors and policymakers live by. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Shane, S.A. and Venkataraman, S. (2000). The Promise of Entrepreneurship As A Field Of Research. Academy of Management Review, 25(1): 217–226, https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2000.2791611

Silberzahn, P. (2013). Commitment in the Entrepreneurial Process. A Reconceptualization, Working Paper, https://philippesilberzahn.files.wordpress.com/2011/02/silberzahn-commitment-and-uncertainty-2013-01-13.pdf.

Simon, M. and Houghton, S.M. (2002). The relationship among biases, misperceptions, and the introduction of pioneering products: examining differences in venture decision contexts. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 27: 105–124, https://doi.org/10.1111/1540-8520.00002

Skrzek-Lubasińska, M. and Szaban, J.M. (2017). Nomenclature and Harmonized Criteria for the Self-Employment Categorization. An Approach Pursuant to the Systematic Literature Review (under review, unpublished).

Smith, A. (2007). Badania nad naturą i przyczynami bogactwa narodów. Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.

Starnawska, M. (2011). Przedsiębiorczość w kontekście otoczenia instytucjonalnego – refleksje. Master of Business Administration, 1(116): 21–29, https://mbace.eu/resources/html/article/details?id=1877 (9.11.2017).

Swinscoe, A. (2013). Is Patience Something That Entrepreneurs Need To Learn? https://www.forbes.com/sites/adrianswinscoe/2013/08/15/is-patience-something-that-entrepreneurs-need-to-learn/#6c79dd637b79 (9.11.2017).

Szaban, J. (2016). Rynek pracy w Polsce i w Unii Europejskiej. Warszawa: Difin.

Thaler, R.H. (2015). The Making of Behavioral Economics Allen Lane. Penguin Books.

Timmons, J. (1990). New Venture Creation. Boston: Irvin.

Timmons, J. and Spinelli, S. (2007). New Venture Creation: Entrepreneurship for the 21st Century. New York.

Veblen, T. (1999). The Theory of Business Enterprise Blackmask Online, http://www.businessbuildersbanquet.com/software/veblen2.pdf (11.09.2017).

Vosko, L., Zukewich, N. and Cranford, C. (2003). Precarious jobs: A new typology of employment. Perspective. Statistics Canada no 75-001-XIE 2003.

Vosko, L.F. (2006). Precarious employment: towards an improved understanding of labor market insecurity. In: L.F. Vosko (ed.), Precarious Employment: Understanding Labor Market Insecurity in Canada. Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Wach, K. (2015). Przedsiębiorczość jako czynnik rozwoju społeczno-gospodarczego: przegląd literatury. Przedsiębiorczość – Edukacja, 11: 24–36, https://doi.org/10.24917/2729.

Wall, S. (2015). Dimensions of Precariousness in an Emerging Sector of Self-Employment: A Study of Self-Employed Nurses. Gender, Work and Organization, 22(3): 221–236, https://doi.org/10.1111/gwao.12071

Weber, M. (1985). The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Allenand Unwin.

Weigl., T. (2008). Strategy, Structure and Performance in Transition Economy. An Institutional Perspective on Configuration in Russia. Springer Gabler Edition Wissenshaft.

Williams, N. and Williams, C.C. (2011). Beyond necessity versus opportunity entrepreneurship. Some lessons from English deprived urban neighbourhoods. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 1.

Venkataraman, S. (1997). The distinctive domain of entrepreneurship research. In: J. Katz (ed.), Advances in entrepreneurship, firm emergence and growth, 3 119–138. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

Journal Information

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 2613 2562 281
PDF Downloads 2496 2450 296