Fourier Landscape Pattern Indices for Predicting South Carolina Watershed Fecal Coliform

Open access


Extending the Landscape Pattern Metric (LPM) model analysis in Smith et al. (2001) into a LPM decision model, decadal scale prediction of fecal coliform compromised South Carolina watersheds is developed. The model’s parameter variability identifies the greatest contributors to a compromised watershed’s prediction. The complete set of model parameters include Land Cover Land Use (LCLU) & slope, along stream proportion, Fourier Metric of Fragmentation (FMF), Fourier Metric of Proportion (FMP), and Least Squares Fourier Transform Fractal Dimension (LsFT). The 1992 National Land Cover Data (NLCD) Land Cover Land Use (LCLU) within fecal coliform compromised watersheds is used to train the model parameters, and the 2001 NLCD LCLU is used to test the LPM model. The most significant model parameters are along stream bare rock LsFT, FMF between urban/recreational grasses and evergreen forests, and FMF between deciduous forests and high density residential areas. These metrics contribute significantly more than the best proportion descriptor: proportion of urban/recreational grasses. In training, the proposed model correctly identified 92 % of the compromised watersheds; while the Smith et al. (2001) model 94 % of the compromised watersheds were correctly identified. This study reveals the ability of Fourier metrics to interpret ecological processes, and the need for more appropriate landscape level models.

Anderson, J.R., Hardy, E.E., Roach, J.T., and R.E. Witmer, (1976). A land use and land cover classification system for use with remote sensor data. Geological survey professional paper 964, U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, D.C.

Beaulac, Michael N. & Kenneth H. Reckhow, (1982). An examination of land use – nutrient export relationships. Water Resources Bulletin, 18(6):1023-1024, December 1982.

Bondelid, T., Murray, B., Pattanayak, S., Lawrence, D., Yang, Jui-Chen, McCail, B. and D. Gilling, (2001). Water benefits and co-benefits of greenhouse gas reduction incentives in agriculture and forestry. Contract 68-01-001, EPA, 2001.

Dorn, T., (2011, August). Nitrogen sources, Retrieved August 2011, from: URL

The Camdus Group, (1998). Watershed assessment: Reading, Pennsylvania. Contract 68-C5-0061, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1998.

Yetunde Jeje, (2006). Export Coefficients for Total Phosphorus, Total Nitrogen and Total Suspended Solids in the Southern Ablerta Region: A Literature Review. Regional Environmental Management, Alberta Environment, 3rd Floor, Deerfoot Square, 2938 – 11 Street N.E. Calgary, Alberta T2E7L7, 2006.

Jennings, D.B., Jarnigan, S.T. and D.W. Ebert, (2004). A modeling approach for estimating watershed impervious surface area from national land cover data. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 70(11):1295-1307, 2004.

Jones, K.B., Neale, A.C., Nash, M.S., Van Remortel, R.D., Wickham, J.D., Ritters, K.H. and R.V. O’Neill, (2001). Predicting nutrient and sediment loadings to streams form landscape metrics: A multiple watershed study from the United States mid-Atlantic region. Landscape Ecology, 16:301-312, 2001

Kaushal, S.S., Pace, M.L., Groffman, P.M., Band, L.E., Belt, K.T., Mayer, P.M. and C. Welty, (2010). Land use and climate variability amplify contaminant pulses. Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 91(25):221-222, July 2010.

MDEQ, (2001). Draft nutrient management plan to total maximum daily load for Flathead Lake, Montana. Technical report, Montana Department of Environmental Quality, 2001.

S.C. Department of Health and Environmental Control, (1980). R.61-68, Water Classifications & Standards. Bureau of Water, 2600 Bull Street, April 2008.

Reckhow, K.H., Beaulac, M.N., and J. Simpson, (1980). Modeling Phosphorus Loading and Lake Response Under Uncertainty: A Manual and Compilation of Export Coefficients. EPA, 440/5-08-011 edition, 1980.

Smith, J.H., Wickham, J.D., Norton, D.J., Wade, T.G. and K.B. Jones, (2001). Utilization of landscape indicators to model potential pathogen impaired waters. Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 37:1-10, 2001.

Spivey, A., (2011). Multiple Scale Landscape Pattern Index Interpretation for the Persistent Monitoring of Land-Cover and Land-Use. Ph.D., Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, May 2011.

Spivey, A. and A., Vodacek, (2017). Evaluation of multiple scale Fourier landscape pattern indices: Relevance of Fourier landscape indicators to predict fecal coliform. In Review, 2017.

USEPA, (1976). Areawide assessment procedures. Technical Report EPA-600/9-76-014, Municipal Environmental Research Laboratory, 1976.

USEPA, (2002). Polluted runoff (nonpoint source pollution). National Management Measures to Control Nonpoint Source Pollution from Agriculture, page 314, 2002.

Vogelmann, J.E., Sohl, T., Cambell, P.V. and D.M. Shaw, (1998a). Regional land cover characterization using landsat thematic mapper data and ancillary data sources. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 51: 415-428, 1998a.

Vogelman, J.E., Sohl, T. and Howard S.M., (1998b). Regional characterization of land cover using multiple sources of data. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 64(1):45-47, 1998b.

Vogelmann, J.E., Howard S.M., Yang, L., Larson, C.R., Wylie, B.K. and N. Van Driel, (2001). Completion of the 1990s national land cover data set for the conterminous united states from landsat thematic mapper data and ancillary data sources. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 67:650-662, 2001.

Wickham, J.D., Ritters, K.H., O’Neill, R.V., Reckhow, K.H., Wade, T.G. and K.B. Jones, (2000). Land cover as a framework for assessing risk of water pollution. Journal of American Water Resources Association, 36(6):1-6, 2000.

Zhu, Z., Yang, L., Stehman, S. and R. Czaplewski, (2000). Designing an accuracy assessment for USGS regional and land cover mapping program. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 66(12):1425-1435, December 2000.

Environmental Protection Agency multi-resolution land characteristics consortium, Retrieved April, 2009, from: URL

United States Geospatial Survey national hydrography dataset, Retrieved February 2009, from: URL

South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control, Retrieved April 2009, from: URL

Environmental Protection Agency multi-resolution land characteristics consortium FAQ, Retrieved July 2010, from: URL

Surface water quality – indicator description, Retrieved July 2010, from URL

Journal of Landscape Ecology

The Journal of Czech National Chapter of the Association for Landscape Ecology (CZ-IALE)

Journal Information

CiteScore 2018: 0.45

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.183
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.233


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 199 148 11
PDF Downloads 115 90 8