Dental considerations in a patient with haemophilia

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Abstract

Haemophilia is a rare blood clotting disorder, characteristic features of which include extemporaneous and post-traumatic subcutaneous bleeding and mucosal haemorrhages. Genetic deficiency of coagulation factor VIII results in haemophilia A, while deficiency of factor IX leads to haemophilia B. The most common treatment for haemophilia A is administration of recombinant or plasma-derived factor VIII concentrate, to raise the levels of the deficient factor VIII. Tranexamic acid is also used as an anti-fibrinolytic agent that inhibits plasminogen activators present in oral secretion and stabilises the clot. Administration of factor IX is required in haemophilia B. Treatment leads to increased longevity and quality of life for patients. Dental conditions and treatments are more complicated and uncertain in patients with haemophilia due to bleeding risk, thus restorative dental care is of paramount importance for those with haemophilia. The fear of bleeding during treatment procedures is the primary cause of lack of proper dental care for people with haemophilia in countries with limited health care resources. This case report highlights the significance of clinical examination and investigation, and the importance of proper interaction between a haematologist and the periodontist for correct multidisciplinary and uneventful management of periodontal health of a patient with haemophilia.

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