Heterogeneity and Competitiveness of Entrepreneurial Processes in the European Union with Special Attention on Croatia as Candidate Country
The paper investigates the efficiency of entrepreneurial processes in European Union member states and Croatia as a European Union candidate country. The authors follow the model of Davidsson (2004), who argues that entrepreneurial activity originates in three waves: the wave of ability, need and opportunity for entrepreneurship; the wave of perceptive ability, perceptive need and perceptive opportunity for entrepreneurship; and entrepreneurial motivation and activity. The authors of the paper argue that the efficiency of the transformations of one entrepreneurship wave to another can be measured by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) on the basis of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor database, which is a new approach to the analysis of entrepreneurial processes. The results indicate high level of heterogeneity of entrepreneurial processes among European Union member states. The authors give special attention to Croatia and conclude that the membership of Croatia in European Union would not threaten the entrepreneurial processes of this European Union candidate country.
Acs, Z. J., Audretsch, D. B., Evans D. S. 1994, "The determinants of variations in self-employment rates across countries over time". Discussion paper, 871. London: Centre for Economic Policy Research.
Alvarez, S. A. (2005), Theories of Entrepreneurship: Alternative assumptions and the study of entrepreneurial action, Boston: The Essence of Knowledge.
Arenius, P. and De Clercq, D. (2004), "A network-based approach on opportunity recognition", Vlerick Leuven Gent Working Papers Series, 2004/23, Gent: Vlerick Leuven Gent management School.
Arenius, P. and Kavalainen, A. 2006. "Similarities and differences across the factors associated with women's self-employment preferences in the Nordic Countries". International Small Business Journal 24 (1): 31 - 59.
Arenius, P. and Minniti, M. 2005. "Perceptual variables and nascent entrepreneurship". Small Business Economics 24 (3): 233 - 247.
Audretsch, D. B. and Thurik, A. R. 2000. "Capitalism and democracy in the 21st century: from the managed to the entrepreneurial economy". Journal of Evoluutionary Economics 10 (1): 17-34.
Audretsch, D. B. and Thurik, A. R. 2001. "What is new about the new economy: sources of growth in managed and entrepreneurial economies". Industrial and Corporate Change 10(1): 25-48.
Audretsch, D. B., Carree, M. A. van Stel, A. J. and Thurik, A. R. 2002. "Impeded industrial restructuring: the growth penalty". Kyklos 55 (1): 81-97.
Barreto, H. 1989. The entrepreneur in microeconomic theory: disappearance and explanation. New York: Routledge.
Blanchflower, D. G. 2000. "Self-employment in OECD Countries". Labour Economics 7 (5): 471-505.
Blanchflower, D. G. 2004. "Self-employment: more may not be better". National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper, No. 10286. National Bureau of Economic Research.
Blanchflower, D. G., Oswald, A. and Stutzer, A. 2001. "Latent entrepreneurship across Nations". European Economic Review 45: 680-691.
Brock, W. A. and Evans, D. S. 1989. "Small business economics". Small Business Economics. 1 (1): 7 - 20.
Carree, M. A., van Stel, A. J. Thurik, A. R. and Wennekers, A. R. M. 2002. Economic development and business ownership: an analysis using data of 23 OECD coun tries in the period 1976-1996.
Dario, C. and Simar, L. 2007. "Advanced robust and nonparametric methods in efficiency analysis: methodology and applications". In Studies in productivity and efficiency, edited by R. Färe at al., 1-248. Boston: Springer.
Davidsson, P. 1991. "Continued entrepreneurship: ability, need and opportunity as determinants of small firm growth". Journal of Business Venturing 6:405-429.
Davidsson, P. 2006. "Nascent entrepreneurship: Empirical studies and development". Foundations and Trends in Entrepreneurship 2 (1): 1-76.
Davidsson, P. 2004. Researching entrepreneurship. Boston: Springer.
Davidsson, P. and Honig, B. 2003. "The role of social and human capital among nascent entrepreneurs". Journal of Business Venturing 18: 301-331.
Delmar, F. and Davidsson, P. 2000. "Where do they come from? Prevalence and characteristics of nascent entrepreneurs". Entrepreneurship and Regional Development 12:1-23.
Douglas, E. J. and Shepherd, D. A. 2002. "Self-Employment as a career choice: attitudes, entrepreneurial intentions, and utility maximization". Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 26 (3): 81 - 90.
Eckhardt, J. and Shane, S. 2003. "The individual-opportunity nexus". In Handbook of Entrepreneurship Research, edited by Z. J. Acs and D. B. Audretsch. Dordrecht, NL: Kluwer.
Fried, H. O., Lovell, C. A. K., and Schmidt, S. S. 2008. "Efficiency and productivity". In The Measurement of Productive Efficiency and Productivity Growth, edited by H. O. Fried, C. A. K. Lovell and S. S. Schmidt, 3-91. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Gavron, R., Cowling, M, Holtham, G. and Westall, A. 1998. The entrepreneurship society. London: Institute for Public Policy Research
Grilo, I. and Thurik, A. R. 2008. "Determinants of entrepreneurial engagement levels in Europe and the US". Industrial and Corporate Change 17 (6): 1113-1145.
Grilo, I, and Thurik, A. R. 2005a. Entrepreneurial engagement levels in the European Union, International Journal of Entrepreneurship Education 3 (2): 143-168.
Grilo, I. and Thurik, A. R. 2005b. "Latent and actual entrepreneurship in Europe and the US: some recent developments". International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal 1 (4): 441-459.
Grilo, I. and Thurik, A. R. 2001. "Determinants of entrepreneurship in Europe". In ERIM Report Series Reference No. ERS-2004-106-ORG http://ssrn.com/abstract=1265435
Grilo, I. and Thurik, R. 2004b. Entrepreneurship in Europe. Max Planck Institute of Economics, Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy. 30 - 2004.
Grilo, I. and Irigoyen, J. M. 2006. "Entrepreneurship in the EU: To wish and not to be". Small Business Economics 26 (4): 305-318.
Henriquez, C., Verheil, I., van der Geest, I. and Bischoff, C. 2002. "Determinants of Entrepreneurship in France". In Entrepreneurship: Determinants and Policy in a European-U. S. Comparison, edited by D. B. Audretsch, R. Thurik, I. Verheul, and S. Wennekers. Economies of Science, Technology and Innovation.
Hofstede, G., Noorderhaven, N. G., Thurik, A. R., Uhlaner, L. M., Wennekers, A. R. M. and Wildeman, R. E. 2004. "Culture's role in entrepreneurship: self-employment out of dissatisfaction". In Innovation, entrepre-neurship and culture: the interaction between technology, progress and economic growth, edited by J. Ulijn, T. Brown 162-203. Cheltenham, UK and Brookfield, US: Edward Elgar.
Kihlstrom, R. and Laffont, J. J. 1979. "A general equilibrium entrepreneurship theory of the firm based on risk aversion". Journal of Political Economy 87 (4): 719 - 748.
Koellinger, P. and Minniti, M. 2006. "Not for lack of trying: American entrepreneurship in black and white". Small Business Economics Journal 27 (1): 59-79.
Koellinger, P., Minniti, M. and Schade, C. 2008. "Seeing the world with different eyes: Gender differences in perceptions and the propensity to start a business". Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 08-035/3. Amsterdam: Tinbergen Institute.
Koellinger, P., Minniti, M. and Schade, C. 2007. "I think I can, I think I can: Overconfidence and entrepreneurial behaviour". Journal of Economic Psychology 28 (4): 502-527.
Koellinger, P., Minniti, M. and Schade, C. 2005. "I Think I Can, I Think I Can …: A Study of Entrepreneurial Behaviour". DIW Discussion Paper. No. 501, DIW.
Minniti, M. and Langowitz, N. 2007. "The entrepreneurial propensity of women". Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 31 (3): 341-364.
Minniti, M. and Nardone, C. 2007. "Being in someone else's shoes: gender and nascent entrepreneurship". Small Business Economics Journal 28 (2-3): 223-239.
Minniti, M., Arenius, P. and Langowitz, N. 2005. Global Entrepreneurship Monitoring: 2004 Report On Women and Entrepreneurship. London: Centre for Woman's Leadership at Babson College/London Business School.
Noorderhaven N. G., Thurik A. R, Wennekers A. R. M., Van Stel, A. J. 2004. "The role of dissatisfaction and per capita income in explaining self-employment across 15 European countries". Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice 28 (5): 447-466.
OECD 1998. Fostering Entrepreneurship. The OECD Jobs Strategy. Paris: OECD.
Parker, S. C. and Robson, M. T. 2004. "Explaining international variations in entrepreneurship: Evidence from a panel of OECD Countries". Southern Economic Journal 71 (2): 287-301.
Reynolds, P., Bygrave, B. and Autio, E. 2003. GEM 2003 Executive Report. London: Babson College, London Business School: E. M. Kauffman Foundation.
Reynolds, P. D., Hay, M. and Camp, S. M. 1999. Global Entrepreneurship Monitoring: 1999 Executive Report, London: Babson College, London Business School and Kauffman Center for Entrepreneurship Leadership
Shane, S. 2000. "Prior knowledge and the discovery of entrepreneurial opportunities". Organization Science 11 (4), 448-469.
Shaver, K. G. and Scott, L. R. 1991. "Person, process, choice: the psychology of new venture creation". Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice 16 (2): 23-45.
Shane, S. and Venkataraman, S. 2000. "The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research". Academy of Management Review 25: 217 - 226.
Shapiro, A. and Sokol, L., 1982. "The social dimension of entrepreneurship". In Encyclopaedia of Entrepreneurship, edited by D. L. Kent and K. H. Vesper. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Sternberg, R, Wennekers, S. 2005. "Determinants and effects of new business creation using global entrepreneur-ship monitor data". Small Business Economics 24 (3): 193-203.
Tajnikar, M. and Pušnik, K. 2008. "Determinants of entrepreneurship in Slovenia from an international perspective". In Advances in entrepreneurship research, edited by C. A. Veloutsou, 19-31. Athens: Athens Institute for Education and Research.
Thanassoulis, E., Portela, M. C. S., and Despić, O. 2008. "Data envelopment analysis: The mathematical programming approach to efficiency analysis". In The Measurement of Productive Efficiency and Productivity Growth, edited by V. H. O. Fried, C. A. K. Lovell and S. S. Schmidt, 251-420. Oxford: Oxford University press.
Thurik, R. and Grilo, I. 2005. "Determinants of entrepreneurship engagement levels in Europe and the U. S. Papers on Entrepreneurship". Growth and Public Policy, 03 - 2005, Max Planck Institute of Economics.
Tominc, P. and Rebernik, M. 2006. "Female entrepreneurship growth aspirations in Slovenia: an unexploited resource". In Growth-Oriented Women Entrepreneurs and Their Businesses: A Global Research Perspective, New Horizons in Entrepreneurship, edited by C. G. Brush, N. M. Carter, E. Gatewood, P. G. Greene, and M. M. Hart. Cheltenham, UK, Northampton, MA, U. S.: E. Elgar.
Uhlaner, L. and Thurik, A. R. 2004. "Post-Materialism: A cultural factor influencing total entrepreneurial activity across nations". Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy 07 - 2004, Max Planck Institute of Economics.
Verheul, I., Wennekers, S., Audretsch, D. and Thurik, R. 2002. "An eclectic theory of entrepreneurship: Policies, institutions and culture". In Entrepreneurship: Determinants and Policy in a European-US Comparison, edited by D. B. Audretsch, A. R. Thurik, I. Verheul and A. R. M. Wennekers. Boston/Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publisher.
Wagner, J. 2003. "Testing Lazear's Jack-Of-All-Trades view of entrepreneurship with German micro data". Applied Economics Letters 10: 687 - 689.
Wennekers, A. R. M., Uhlaner, L. and Thurik, A. R. 2002. "Entrepreneurship and its conditions: A macro perspective". International Journal of Entrepreneurship Education 1 (1): 25 - 64.
Wit, G. de and van Winden, F. A. A. M. 1989. "An empirical analysis of self-employment in the Netherlands". Small Business Economics 1 (4): 263-284.
Zhu, J. 2003. Quantitative Models for Performance Evaluation and Benchmarking. Data Envelopment Analysis with Spreadsheets and DEA Excel Solver, Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.