In Europe, as well as in Bulgaria, consumption of soft drinks and confectionery has increased during the last three decades and is partly responsible for the epidemic-like increase in obesity. These foods, originally sweetened by sucrose, are now sweetened by other caloric sweeteners such as fructose. In this study we investigated the effect of an eight-week intake of 20% fructose solution on body weight in rats. Two adult rat groups (aged 120±6 days) of Wistar line were studied: a Control group (C; n=10; 5 male and 5 female rats) received water and standard rodent chow, and a Fructose group (F; n=12; 6 male and 6 female rats) who received 20% fructose-in-drinking-water solution and regular rodent chow. All animals were weighed and measured (nose to anus length), and the Lee index (equivalent of BMI in rats) was calculated. Body fat was also analyzed. As indicators of increased caloric intake of the Fructose group we investigated glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol (total, HDL and LDL) in blood. In conclusion, consumption of fructose solution in rats resulted in increased body weight, length and measured body fat, increased blood glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides in the Fructose group, as compared to the controls.
1. Tappy L, Le KA. Metabolic Effects of Fructose and the Worldwide Increase in Obesity. Physiol Rev. 2010;9091):23-46.
2. Stanhope KL, Griffen SC, Bair BR, Swarbrick MM, Keim NL, Havel PJ. Twenty-four hour endocrine and metabolic profiles following consumption of high fructose corn syrup-, sucrose- fructose-, and glucose-sweetened beverages with meals. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87(5):1194-203.
3. Stanhope KL, Havel PJ. Fructose consumption: potential mechanisms for its effects to increase visceral adiposity and induce dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2008;19(1):16-24.
4. Lindqvist A, Baelemans A, Erlanson-Albertsson C. Effects of sucrose, glucose and fructose on peripheral and central appetite signals. Regul Pept. 2008;150(1-3):26-32.
5. Bray GA, Nielsen SJ, Popkin BM. Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup in beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79(4):537-43.
6. Stanhope KL, Schwarz JM, Keim NL, Griffen SC, Bremer AA, Graham JL. Consuming fructose-sweetened, not glucose-sweetened, beverages increases visceral adiposity and lipids and decreases insulin sensitivity in overweight/obese humans. J Clin Invest. 2009;119(5):1322-34.
7. Bray GA. Fructose: should we worry? Int J Obesity. 2008;32:S127-31.
8. De Maura RF, Ribeiro C, de Oliveira JA, Stevanato E, de Mello MA. Metabolic syndrome signs in Wistar rats submitted to different high-fructose ingestion protocols. Br J Nutr. 2009;101(8):1178-84.
9. Bocarsly ME, Powell ES, Avena NM, Hoebel BG. High-fructose corn syrup causes characteristics of obesity in rats: increased body weight, body fat and triglyceride levels. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2010;97(1):101-6.
10. Zarfeshani A, Sokhini M, Mutalib A, Khaza'ai H. Evaluating of high fructose diet to induce hyperglycemia and its inflammatory complications in rats. Pak J Nutr. 2012;11(1):21.
11. Alzamendi A, Giovambattista A, Raschia A, Madrid V, Gaillard RC, Rebolledo O. Fructose-rich diet-induced abdominal adipose tissue endocrine dysfunction in normal male rats. Endocrine. 2009;35(2):227-32.
12. Martines C, Gonzales E, Garcia RS, Salas G, Constantino-Casas F, Macias L et al. Effects on body mass of laboratory rats after ingestion of drinking water with sucrose, fructose, aspartame, and sucralose additives. Open Obes J. 2010;2:116-24.
13. Abdullah M, Riediger NN, Chen Q, Zhao Z, Azordegan N. Effects of long-term consumption of a high-fructose diet on conventional cardiovascular risk factors in Sprague-Dawley rats. Mol Cell Biochem. 2009;327(1-2):247-56.
14. Cinti S. The adipose organ. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2005;73(1):9-1.
15. George A. Bray GA, Popkin BM. Dietary Sugar and Body Weight: Have We Reached a Crisis in the Epidemic of Obesity and Diabetes? Diabetes Care. 2014;37(4):950-6.
16. Sievenpiper JL, de Souza RJ, Mirrahimi A, Yu ME, Carleton AJ, Beyene J, et al. Effect of fructose on body weight in controlled feeding trials: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2012; 156(4):291-304.