Flowering Phenology of Selected Linden (Tilia L.) Taxa in Relation to Pollen Seasons

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All lindens provide Apidae insects with nectar, pollen, and honeydew. Lindens are important melliferous trees in Poland. The first purpose of the study was to carry out phenological observations of the flowering in ten linden taxa. The second aim was to analyse the content of linden pollen grains in the air of Lublin. A correlation between the parameters of the pollen season and meteorological factors was also determined. This study was conducted in the city of Lublin located in the central-eastern part of Poland. The flowering phenophases were analysed, using the method developed by Łukasiewicz, during the growing seasons of 2012-2015. Aerobiological monitoring, which was based on the volumetric method, was carried out over the 2001-2014 time period. As shown in the study, the flowering period of all the analysed linden taxa lasted 7 weeks, on average, from June 7 to July 24. The average length of the flowering period of the investigated taxa and hybrids was in the range of 12-17 days. Their flowering periods overlapped. The atmospheric pollen season lasted, on average, from mid-June to the second 10-day period of July. The highest concentration of airborne pollen was noted at the end of June. The pollen season pattern was significantly affected by temperature and relative air humidity as well as by rainfall in May and June. The investigations indicate a 9-day acceleration of the pollen season, which may be associated with global warming.

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