Rearing Drones in Queen Cells of Apis mellifera Honey Bees

Open access

Abstract

We investigated the rearing of drone larvae grafted in queen cells. From the 1200 drone larvae that were grafted during spring and autumn, 875 were accepted (72.9%) and reared as queens. Drone larvae in false queen cells received royal jelly of the same composition and of the same amounts as queen larvae. Workers capped the queen cells as if they were drones, 9-10 days after the egg laying. Out of 60 accepted false queen cells, 21 (35%) were capped. The shape of false queen cells with drone larvae is unusually long with a characteristically elongate tip which is probably due to the falling of larvae. Bees start the destruction of the cells when the larvae were 3 days old and maximised it before and after capping. Protecting false queen cells in the colony by wrapping, reversing them upside down, or placing in a horizontal position, did not help. The only adult drones that emerged from the false queen cells were those protected in an incubator and in push-in cages. Adult drones from false queen cells had smaller wings, legs, and proboscis than regular drones. The results of this study verify previous reports that the bees do not recognise the different sex of the larvae at least at the early stage of larval development. The late destruction of false queen cells, the similarity in quality and quantity of the produced royal jelly, and the bigger drone cells, allow for the use of drone larvae in cups for the production of royal jelly.

Fell, R.D., & Morse, R.A. (1984). Emergency queen cell production in the honey bee colony. Insectes Sociaux, 31(3), 221-237. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02223608

Free, J.B., Ferguson, A.W., & Simpkins, J.R. (1989). The effect of different periods of brood isolation on subsequent brood-cell visits by worker honeybees (Apis mellifera L.). Journal of Apicultural Research, 28(1), 22 – 25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00218839.1989.11100815

Garcia-Amoedo, L. H.,& Almeida-Muradian, L.B.(2007). Physicochemical composition of pure and adulterated royal jelly. Química Nova, 30(2), 257-259. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-40422007000200002

Haydak, M. H. (1956). Pollen substitutes. In Proceedings of 10th International Congress of Entomology, (1053-56). Montreal – Canada.

Haydak, M.H. (1958). Do nurse bees recognize the sex of the larvae? Science, 127(3306), 1113. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.127.3306.1113

Kamakura, M. (2011). Royalactin induces queen differentiation in honeybees. Nature, 473, 478-483. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature10093

Le Conte, Y., Sreng, L., Sacher, N., Trouiller, J., Dusticier, G., Poitout, S. H. (1994). Chemical recognition of queen cells by honey bee workers Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Chemoecology, 5(1), 6-12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01259967

Manley, R. O. B. (1936). Bee development. Bee World, 17(4),43.

Melnichenko, A.N., Kapralova, O.V., & Shmelena, N.D. (1983). Study of the caryotype and mass of DNA in normal honeybees and their sex in artificially changed. In Proceedings of XXIXth International Congress of Apiculture of Apimondia (p. 140-144). Budapest – Hungary.

Naulleau, G. (1962). Les abeilles reconnaissent-elles le sexe des larves de males transposes dans cellules royales? Insectes Sociaux, 9(2), 165-172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02224262

Obata, H., & Nonogaki, T. (1965). Amounts of royal jelly obtained by using drone instead of worker larvae. Animal Husbandry, 19(6), 861-862. (In Japanese A.A. 795/65).

Ruttner, F. (1988). Morphometric analysis and classification. In Biogeography and Taxonomy of Honeybees. (pp.66-78) Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Sasaki, H., Nagura, K., Ishino, M., Tobioka, H., Kotani, K., Sasaki, T. (1995). Cloning and characterization of cell adhesion kinase beta, a novel protein-tyrosine kinase of the focal adhesion kinase subfamily. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 270(36), 21206-19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.270.36.21206

Sasaki, K., Kitamura, H., & Obara, Y. (2004). Discrimination of larvae sex and timing of male brood elimination by workers in honeybees (Apis mellifera L.). Applied Entomology and Zoology, 39(3),393-399. http://doi.org/10.1303/aez.2004.393

Sesta, G. (2006). Determination of sugars in royal jelly by HPLC. Apidologie, 37(1), 84-90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/apido:2005061

Sesta, G., & Lusco, L. (2008). Refractometric determination of water content in royal jelly. Apidologie, 39(2), 225-232. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/apido:2007053

Simpson, J. (1966). Repellency of the mandibular gland scent of worker honeybees. Nature, 209, 531-532. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/209531b0

Smith, M.V. (1961). Drones in queen cells. Bee world, 42(8):202-203. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0005772x.1961.11096878

Takeuchi, K., Terunma, J., & Sakai, T. (1971). Study on the drone honeybee. I. Morphological balance of the normal drones and drones by laying workers. Bull. Tamagawa-gakuen Women’s Jr Coll., 2, 45-52

Thrasyvoulou, A., Sakellari, D., Spatheraki, E., Pimenidis, G. (1992). Depression of swarming by colony inversion. American Bee Journal, 132(2), 115-116.

Tofilski, A., & Czekonska, K. (2004). Emergency queen rearing in honeybee colonies with brood of known age. Apidologie, 35(3), 275-282. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/apido:2004014

Winston, M.L. (1987). The biology of the honey bee. Cambridge, London: Harvard University Press.

Wolsterncroft, S. (1936). Drones in queen cells. Bee World, 17(5),53.

Woyke, J. (1956). Pszczoly nie rozróżniają larw pszczelich I trutowych. Pszczelarstwo, 7(5), 1 - 4.

Woyke, J. (1965). Rearing diploid drone larvae in queen cells in a colony. Journal of Apicultural Research, 4(3), 143-148. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00218839.1965.11100116

Woyke, J. (1971). Correlations between the age at which honeybee brood was grafted, characteristics of the resultant queens, and results of insemination. Journal of Apicultural Research, 10(1), 45 – 55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00218839.1971.11099669

Woyke, J. (1971a). Dlaczego trutnie nie wychowują się w matecznikach. X Naukowa Konferencja Pszczelarska, (p. 22-23). Pulawy. Retrieved June 20, 2016, from http://jerzy_woyke.users.sggw.pl/1971_trut_nie_mczniki_eng.pdf

Zhou, J., Zhao, J., Yuan, H., Meng, Y., Li, Y., Wu, L., & Xue, X. (2007). Comparison of UPLC and HPLC for determination of trans-10-Hydroxy-2-Decenoic acid content in royal jelly by Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction with internal standard. Chromatographia, 66(3), 185-190. http://dx.doi.org/10.1365/s10337-007-0305-8

Journal of Apicultural Science

The Journal of Research Institute of Horticulture and Apicultural Research Association

Journal Information


IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 0.75
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.007

CiteScore 2017: 0.92

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.345
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.461

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 557 557 48
PDF Downloads 158 158 24