Exposure of A. mellifera workers to CO2 has been reported to decrease life span, induce behavioral changes, and inhibit the development of some glands and the ovaries. However, the use of CO2 is currently practiced among beekeepers and how the development of workers’ ovaries are affected is unknown. The present work aimed to evaluate the effect of CO2 on the ovaries of A. mellifera workers, using a morphological approach. Newly emerged, and 3, 5, and 10-day-old workers were exposed to saturated CO2 for 30 seconds, more than once. The ovaries were examined under light (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The ovaries of narcotized, 5-day-old workers exhibited long ovarioles with well-developed germarium, although oogenesis showed little development. While in the control group, the ovaries already exhibited cysts with cystocytes forming rosettes. At 10-days-old, the ovaries feature was variable; some of the ovaries showed ovarioles with many rosette cysts while others showed a high intensity of disorganization due to the beginning of cell death. The ovarioles of the ovaries of 15-day-old treated workers were morphologically varied as oogenesis showed little or no advance. In others cases, a complete disorganization with swollen cells and cell death features were observed. Germ cells of the ovaries of CO2-treated workers exhibited well-structured organelles, such as the Golgi complex, and larger amounts of mitochondria in the cytoplasm than the control group, but there was disorganization of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Our findings revealed that the exposure of workers to CO2 promotes impairment of oogenesis and ovarian degradation.
Amdam G. V., Omholt S. W. (2003) The hive bee to forager transition in honeybee colonies: the double repressor hypothesis. Journal of Theoretical Biology 223(4): 451-464. DOI: 10.1016/S0022-5193(03)00121-8
Berger B., Abdalla F. C. (2004) Honeybee worker longevity on differential diet and narcosis. In: VI Encontro sobre abelhas/ 8th IBRA International Conference on Tropical Bees. Ribeirão Preto-Brazil. 6-10 September 2004: 449.
Berger B., Cruz-Landim C. (2009) Ultrastructural analysis of the effect of mating delay on cell death in the ovaries of virgin honey bee. Journal of Apicultural Research 48(1): 60-66. DOI: 10.3896/IBRA.18.104.22.168
Berger B., Abdalla F. C., Cruz-Landim C. (2005) Effect of Narcosis with CO2 on the Ovarian Development in Queens of Apis mellifera Linné, 1785 (Hymenoptera, Apini). Sociobiology 45(2): 261-270.
Bitondi M. M. G., Simões Z. L. P. (1996) The relationship between level of pollen in diet, vitellogenin and juvenile hormone titers in Africanized Apis mellifera workers. Journal of Apicultural Research 35(1): 27-36.
Butler C. G., Paton N. P. (1964) Inhibition of queen rearing by queen honey bees (Apis mellifera L) of different ages. Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London. Series A General Entomology 37(7-9): 114-116. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3032.1962.tb00470.x
Cobey S. W. (2007) Comparison studies of instrumentally inseminated and naturally mated honey bee queens and factors affecting their performance. Apidologie 38(2007): 390-410. DOI: 10.1051/apido:2007029
Cruz-Landim C., Akahira Y. (1966) Influência da alimentação no desenvolvimento de algumas glândulas de Trigona (Scaptotrigona) postica Latreile (Hymenoptera, Apoidea). Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia (São Paulo) 19: 63-78.
Ebadi R., Norman E., Gary N. E., Lorenzen K. (1980) Effects of carbon dioxide and low temperature narcosis on honey bee Apis mellifera. Environmental Entomology 9(1): 144-147.
Engels W., Gonçalves L. S., Engels E. (1976) Effects of carbon dioxide on vitellogenin metabolism in unmated queen honeybees. Journal of Apicultural Research 15: 3-10.
Fyg W. (1950) Beobachtungen úber die Wirkungen der Kohlensáure- Narcose auf Arbeitsbienen. Schweizerische Bienen-Zeitung 73: 174-184.
Guidugli K. R., Nascimento A. M., Amdam G. V., Barchuk A. R., Omholt S. W., Simões Z. L. P., Hartfelder K. (2005) Vitellogenin regulates hormonal dynamics in the worker caste of a eusocial insect. Federation of European Biochemical Societies Letters 579(22): 4961-4965.
Harris J. W., Harbo J. (1990) Suppression of ovary development of worker honeybees by association with workers treated with carbon dioxide. Journal of Apicultural Research 29(4): 187-193.
Huang Z. Y., Robinson G. E. (1996) Regulation of honey bee division of labor by colony age demography. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 39(1996): 147-158.
Jaycox E. R. (1976) Behavioral changes in worker honey bees (Apis mellifera) after injection with synthetic juvenile hormone (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 49(2): 165-170.
Koywiwattrakul P., Thompson G. J., Sittipraneed S., Oldroyd B. P., Maleszka R. (2005) Effects of carbon dioxide narcosis on ovary activation and gene expression in worker honey bees, Apis mellifera. Journal of Insect Science 5: 36.
Machado J. O., Camargo J. M. F. (1972) Alimentação em Apis e composição da geléia real, mel e pólen. In: Camargo J. M. F. (Ed). Manual de Apicultura. Editora Agronômica Ceres. Piracicaba: 117-142.
Mackensen O. (1947) Effect of carbon dioxide on initial oviposition of artifi cially inseminated and virgin queen bees. Journal of Economic Entomology 40(3): 344-349.
Pain J., Barbier M., Roger B. (1967) Dosages individuels des acides céto-9-décène-2-oique et hydroxy-10 elécène-2-oique dans lês têtes dês reins et dês ouvrières d’abeiles. Annales de l’Abeille 10: 45-52.
Patricio K., Cruz-Landim C. (2003) Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apini) ovary development in queens and workers from queenright and queenless colonies. Sociobiology 42(3): 771-779.
Serrão J. E., Cruz-Landim C. (1995) Comparative size and histology of the proventriculus and midgut among the female castes and the males of the Scaptotrigona postica Latreile, 1804 (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponinae). Biociências 3(2): 85-94.
Skowronek W. (1979) Effect of carbon dioxide anesthesia on the productivity of honey bee queens. Pszczelnicze Zeszyty Naukowe 23: 89-96.
Skowronek W., Jaycox E. R. (1974) Effect of carbon dioxide on worker honey bees. Pszczelnicze Zeszyty Naukowe 18: 107-119.