Comb Construction and Brood Development on Beeswax Foundation Adulterated with Paraffin

Open access

Summary

In 2010 - 2011 the influence of beeswax foundation adulterated with different percentages of paraffin, on comb construction, brood rearing and bee colonies development was evaluated. Beeswax foundation adulterated with different rate of paraffin (10%, 30%, 50%) was prepared. Each year of the study into 7 experimental bee colonies set in Dadant type bee-hives, the three-frames queen insulators were inserted. Every frame in the insulators had a half of the foundation made from pure beeswax (the control - 0% paraffin) and a second half made from wax adulterated with paraffin (experimental). As a result every colony had an insulator with 3 frames with beeswax foundation with different percentages of paraffin (10 and 0%, 30 and 0%, 50 and 0%). The queens were put in the insulators what stimulated bees to prepare a place for laying eggs, thus, to construct the combs on the foundation.

Paraffin used in our experiment had no negative impact on the bee colonies. Bees drew out the foundation properly, and no destruction was observed. The queens laid eggs on the systematically drawn out comb cells. Brood development was normal and its quality was suitable. The worker bees emerged after 21 days. No case of brood or emerging worker bees death was noted.

Because of the different chemical compositions and purities of the paraffin available on the domestic market, it is impossible to exclude the fact that such paraffin may cause harmful effects on bee colonies.

Bernal J. L., Jimenez J. J., del Nozal M. J., Toribio L., Martin M. T. (2005) - Physico-chemical parameters for the characterisation of pure beewax and detection of adulterations. Euro. J. Lipid Sci. Technol., 107(3): 158-166.

Bogdanov S. (2003) - Contamination of bee products. Apidologie, 37: 1-18.

Castro A. V., Medici S. K., Sarlo E. G., Eguaras M. J. (2010) - Effects of Paraffin Incorporation in Beeswax Foundations on Comb-building and Brood Survivorship in Apis mellifera Colonies. Zootecnia Trop., 28(3): 353-361.

Flores J. M., Spivak M., Gutierrez I. (2005) - Spores of Ascosphaera apis contained in wax foundation can infect honeybee brood. Vet. Microbiol., 108: 141-144.

Fries I. (1988) - Comb replacement and nosema disease (Nosema apis Z.) in honeybee colonies. Apidologie, 19(4): 343-354.

Jimenez J. J., Bernal J. L., del Nozal M. J., Toribio L., Bernal J. (2007) - Detection of beeswax adulterations using concentration guide-values. Euro. J. Lipid Sci. Technol., 109: 682-690.

Johnson R. M., Ellis M. D., Mullin C. A., Frazier M. (2010) - Pesticides and honey bee toxicity - USA. Apidologie, 41(3): 312-331.

Koenig J. P., Boush G. M., Erickson E. H. Jr. (1986) - Old comb may contribute to chalkbrood disease. Am. Bee J., 126: 191-192.

Mutinelli F. (2011) - The spread of pathogens through trade in honey bees and their products (including queen bees and semen): overview and recent developments. Rev. Sci. Tech. Off. Int. Epiz., 30(1): 257-271.

Piccirillo G. A., De Jong D. (2004) - Old honey bee brood combs are more infested by the mite Varroa destructor than are new brood combs. Apidologie, 35: 359-364.

PN-72/R-78890 (1996) - Wosk Pszczeli. [Polish Standard - Beeswax]. - Wydawnictwo Normalizacyjne “Alfa”.

Pohorecka K., Bober A., Skubida M., Zdańska D. (2011) - Epizootic status of apiaries with massive looses of bee colonies (2008 - 2009). J. Apic. Sci., 55(1): 137-151.

Semkiw P., Skubida P. (2011) - Evaluation of the economical aspects of Polish beekeeping. J. Apic. Sci., 54(2): 5-15.

Shimanuki H., Knox D. A (2000) - Diagnosis of honey bee diseases. USDA Handbook No. AH 690, USDA, Washington, 61 pp.

Skowronek W. (1976) - Możliwości produkcyjne wosku i budowa plastrów przez pszczoły trzech ras. [The production capacity of beeswax and comb building by three races of bees]. Pszczeln. Zesz. Nauk., 20: 85-97.

Szpyrka R. (1999) - Parafina - skład, właściwości, zastosowania. [Paraffin - composition, properties, applications]. Paliwa, oleje i smary w eksploatacji, 64: 27-34.

Topolska G., Gajda A., Pohorecka K., Bober A., Kasprzak S., Skubida M., Semkiw P. (2010) - Winter colony losses in Poland. J. Apic. Res., 49(1): 126-128.

Wallner K. (1995) - The use of varroacides and their influence on the quality of bee products. Am. Bee J., 135(12): 817-821.

Wallner K. (1997) - The actual beeswax quality in foundations from the market. Apidologie, 28: 168-171.

Wallner K. (2005) - Foundation causing honeybee brood damage. In Proceedings ofICPBR 9. International Symposium York, United Kingdom, 12-14 October 2005, p. 30.

Waś E., Rybak-Chmielewska H., Szczęsna T. (2008) - Charakterystyka węglowodorów w wosku pszczelim i wykrywanie jego zafałszowań parafiną techniką chromatografii gazowej z detektorem masowym (GC-MS). [Characteristic of beeswax hydrocarbons and detection of its adulteration with paraffin by gas chromatography with mass detector technique (GC-MS)], in: Zbigniew Hubicki (Ed.) - Nauka i przemysł - metody spektroskopowe w praktyce, [Science and industry - spectroscopic methods in practice], Wyd. UMCS Lublin, pp. 240-241.

Waś E., Szczęsna T., Rybak- Chmielewska H., Semkiw P., Skubida P. (2012) - Determination of alkanes in beeswax from comb foundation adulterated with paraffin after rebuilding by bees using GC-MS technique. In Proceedingsof II International Symposium on Bee Products. Annual Meeting of IHC, Braganca, Portugal, 9-12 September, 2012, p. 87.

Wilde J. (2008) - Gospodarka pasieczna [Beekeeping technology], in: J. Wilde and J. Prabucki (Eds) Hodowla pszczół [Bees breeding], PWRiL, Oddział Poznań, pp. 203-253.

Journal of Apicultural Science

The Journal of Research Institute of Horticulture and Apicultural Research Association

Journal Information


IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 0.75
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.007

CiteScore 2017: 0.92

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.345
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.461

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 304 304 24
PDF Downloads 154 154 19