The aim of this study was to determine the levels of these elements: Hg, Ba, Ca, Fe, Mn, Li, As, Na and K in the bodies of bees. Honeybee samples were randomly collected from apiaries located in four counties of the province of Kurdistan. The four counties were: Marivan, Bijar, Kamyaran and Ghorveh. The data obtained from this study showed that K had the highest concentration, followed by Na, Ca, Hg, Ba, Fe, Mn, Li and As. From among all the sites, there were no significant differences recorded between the concentrations of the different metals. The results did show that three minerals groups were able to be differentiated: elements that were very abundant, elements in a medium concentration, and trace elements. The first group consisted of K and Na, with a range from 41.857 to 47.871, and 12.653 to 16.183 ppm, respectively. The second mineral group was composed of Ca, Hg, Ba, and Fe, where Ca was the most abundant element (with a range of 9.077 to 10.058 ppm), followed by Hg (1.12-4.786 ppm), Ba (2.881-3.481 ppm), and Fe (1.050-1.727 ppm). The third mineral group was composed of Mn, Li and As. They ranged from 0.262 to -0.399, and from 0.043 to 0.101, and from 0.017 to 0.068 ppm, respectively.
Accorti M ., Guardini R., Modi G., Perano-Oddo L. (1990) - Urban pollution and honey bees. Apicoltura, 6: 43-55.
Balestra V., Celli G.,Porrini C. (1992) - Bees, honey, larvae and pollen in biomonitoring of atmospheric pollution. Aerobiologia, 8: 122-126.
Binelli A., Bacchetta R., Vailati G., Galassi S., Provini A. (2001) - DDT contamination in Lake Maggiore (N. Italy) and effects on zebra mussel spawning. Chemosphere, 45:409-415.
Bromenshenk J. J., Carlson S. R., Simpson J. C., Thomas J. M. (1985) - Pollution monitoring of Puget Sound with honeybees. Science, 227: 632-634.
Corsolini S., Burrini L., Focardi S., Lovardi S. (2000) - How can we use the red fox as bioindicator of organochlorines? Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 39: 547-556.
Crane E. (1984) - Bees, honey and pollen as indicators of metals in the envirnment. BeeWorld, 55: 47-49.
Devillers J., Pham-Delegue M. H., (2002) - Honey Bees: Estimating the environmental impact of chemicals. Taylor and Francis, London and New York, pp. 332.
Herrera A., Ariño A., Conchello M. P., Lázaro R., Bayarri S., Yagùe C. (2000) - Red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa) as bioindicators for persistent chlorinated chemicals in Spain. Arch. Environ. Contam.Toxicol., 38: 114-120.
Kevan G. P. (1999) - Pollinator as bioindicators of the state of the environment: Species, activity and diversity. Agric. Ecosyst.Environ., 74: 373-393.
Leita L., Muhlbachova G., Cesco S. Barbattini R., Mondini C. (1996) - Investigation of the use of honey bees and honey bee products to assess heavy metals contamination. Environ. Monit. Assess., 43: 1-9.
López Alonso M., Benedito J. L., Miranda M., Castillo C., Herna´ndez J., Shore R. F. (2002) - Cattle as biomonitors of soil arsenic, copper, and zinc concentrations in Galicia (NW Spain). Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 43: 103-108.
Perugini M., Manera M., Grotta L., Abete M. C., Tarasco R. (2011) - Heavy Metal (Hg, Cr, Cd, and Pb) Contamination in Urban Areas and Wildlife Reserves: Honeybees as Bioindicators. Biol. Trace. Elem. Res., 140: 170-176.
Porrini C., Celli G., Radegui P., Marini S., Maccagnani B. (2000) - Studies on the use of honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) as bioindicators of metals in the. Insect SocialLife, 3: 153-159.
Porrini C., Ghini S., Girotti S., Sabatini A.G., Gattavecchia E., Celli G. (2002) - Use of honeybees as bioindicators of environmental pollution in Italy, in: Devillers J., Pham-Delègue M.H.(Eds.) Honey bees: Estimating the environmental impact of chemicals, Taylor & Francis, London and New York, pp. 186-247.
Porrini C., Sabatini A. G., Girotti S., Ghini S., Medrzycki P., Grillenzoni F., Bortolotti L., Gattavecchia E., Celli G. (2003) - Honeybees and bee products as monitors of the environmental contamination. Apiacata, 38: 63-70.
Roman A. (2004) - The heavy metals content in bee’s nectar and mature honey. ScientificExercise Books of Agricultural University inWrocław, LI., 501: 297.
Roman A. (2009) - Concentration of Chosen Trace Elements of Toxic Properties in Bee Pollen Loads. Pol. J. of Environ. Stud., 18(2): 265-272.
Spodniewska A. (2007) - Lead and cadmium content in bees from apiaries of Warmia and Mazury province. Veterinary Medicine, 63:
Szefe P., Frelek., Szefer K., Lee Ch.B., Kim B. S, Warzocha J. (2002) - Distribution and relationships of trace metals in soft tissue, byssus and shells of Mytilusedulis trossulus from the southern Baltic. Environ Pollut., 120: 423-44.
Veleminsky M., Laznicka P., Stary P. (1990) - Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) as environmental monitors of heavy metals in Czechoslovakia. Acta Entomol. Bohemoslov., 87: 37-44.