Phenolic Compounds of Propolis from the Boreal Coniferous Zone

Open access

Phenolic Compounds of Propolis from the Boreal Coniferous Zone

The profile of phenolic compounds in 19 propolis samples from different provinces in Finland were analysed for the first time using HPLC-DAD. Nine individual flavonoids (comprising 26% of the identified phenolics), eleven cinnamic acid derivatives (36%), two caffeic acid derivatives (14%), three chlorogenic acid derivatives (14%), and three other phenolic acids (10%) were found in the propolis samples. The compounds found in the largest quantities were methyl-naringenin and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE). The phenolic profiles of Finnish propolis show marked differences when compared with P. nigra and P. tremuloides propolis of Central European and Canadian origins. The phenolic compounds found in propolis samples are commonly found in the tree species growing in Finland. Non-metric multidimensional scaling showed that samples were scattered and they did not form clear groups according to the geographical origin or age of the sample.

Bankova V., Dyulgerov A., Popov S., Evstatieva L., Kuleva L., Pureb O., Zamjansan Z. (1992) - Propolis produced in Bulgaria and Mongolia: phenolic compounds and plant origin. Apidologie, 23: 79-85.

Bankova V., Boudourova-Krasteva G., Popov S., Sforcin J. M., Cunha Funari S. R. (1998) - Seasonal variation of the chemical composition of Brazilian propolis. Apidologie, 29: 361-367.

Bankova V. S., Solange L., Castro S. L., Marcucci M. C. (2000) - Propolis: recent advances in chemistry and plant origin. Apidologie, 31: 3-15.

Bankova V., Popova M., Bogdanov S., Sabatini A. G. (2002) - Chemical composition of European propolis: expected and unexpected results Z. Naturforsch., 57c: 530-533.

Christov R., Trusheva B., Popova M., Bankova V., Bertrand M. (2006) - Chemical composition of propolis from Canada, its antiradical activity and plant origin. Nat. Prod. Res., 20: 531-536.

Greenway W., Scaysbrook T., Whatley R. (1990) - The composition and plant origin of propolis: a report of work at Oxford. Bee Word, 71: 107-118.

Julkunen-Tiitto R. (1985) - A chemotaxonomic survey of phenolics in leaves of northern Salicaceae species. Phytochemistry, 25: 663-667.

Julkunen-Tiitto R., Sorsa S. (2001) - Testing the drying methods for willow flavonoids, tannins and salicylates. J. Chem. Ecol., 27(4): 779-789.

Keski-Saari S., Pusenius J., Julkunen-Tiitto R. (2005) - Phenolic compounds in seedlings of Betula pubescens and B. pendula are affected by enhanced UV-B radiation and different nitrogen regimes during early ontogeny. Glob. Change Biol., 11: 1180-1194.

Krell R. (1996) - Value-added products from beekeeping. FAO Agricultural service bulletin, No 124, Rome.

Kujumgiev A., Tsvetkova I., Serkedjieva Yu., Bankova V., Christov R., Popov S. (1999) - Antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activity of propolis from different geographical origin. J. Ethnopharmacol., 64: 235-240.

Lahtinen M., Kapari L., Kentta J. (2006) - Newly hatched neonate larvae can glycosylate: the fate of Betula pubescens bud flavonoids in first instar Epirrita autumnata. J. Chem. Ecol., 32: 537-546.

Laitinen M. L., Julkunen-Tiitto R., Rousi M. (2002) - Foliar phenolic composition of European white birch during dud unfolding and leaf development. Physiol. Plantarium, 114: 450-460.

Lampinen R., Lahti T. (2010) - Kasviatlas 2009, Helsingin Yliopisto, Luonnontieteellinen keskusmuseo, kasvimuseo, Helsinki. The [online]:

Marcucci M. C. (1995) - Propolis: chemical composition, biological properties and therapeutic activity. Apidologie, 26: 83-99.

McCune B., Mefford M. J. (1999) - PC-ORD. Multivariate Analysis of Ecological Data. Version 5.0 MjM Software, Gleneden Beach, Oregon, U.S.A.

Peltonen P.A., Julkunen-Tiitto R., Vapaavuori E., Holopainen J. K. (2006) - Effects of elevated carbon dioxide and ozone on aphid oviposition preference and birch bud exudate phenolic. Glob. Change Biol., 12: 1670-1679.

Popravko S. A., Sokolov M. V. (1980) - Plant sources of propolis. Pchelovodstvo 2: 28-29 [in Russian]. In Bankova V., Popova M., Bogdanov S., Sabatini A. G. (2002) - Chemical composition of European propolis: expected and unexpected results. Z. Naturforsch., 57c: 530-533.

Ramanauskiene K., Savickas A., Inkeniene A., Vitkevicius K., Kasparaviciene G., Briedis V., Amsiejus A. (2009) - Analysis of content of phenolic acids in Lithuanian propolis using high-performance liquid chromatography technique. Medicina (Kaunas), 45: 712-717.

Rummukainen A., Julkunen-Tiitto R., Räisänen M., Lehto T. (2007) - Phenolic compounds in Norway spruce as affected by boron nutrition at the end of the growing season. Plant and Soil. 292: 13-23.

Russo A., Longo R., Vanella A. (2002) - Antioxidant activity of propolis: role of caffeic acid phenethyl ester and galangin. Fitoterapia, 73: S21-S29.

Salonen A., Ollikka T., Grönlund E., Ruottinen L., Julkunen-Tiitto R. (2009) - Pollen analyses of honey from Finland. Grana, 48: 281-289.

Salonen A., Hiltunen J., Julkunen-Tiitto R. (2011) - Composition of Unique Unifloral Honeys from the Boreal Coniferous Forest Zone: Fireweed and Raspberry Honey. J. ApiProd. ApiMed. Sci., 3: 128-136.

Silici S., Kutluca, S. (2005) - Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of propolis collected by three different races of honeybees in the same region. J. Ethnopharmacol., 99: 69-73.

Strack D., Mömken M.,Wray V. (1988) - Cell wall-conjugated phenolics from coniferae leaves. Phytochemistry, 27: 3517-3521

Tomas-Barberan F. A., Martos I., Ferreres F., Radovic B.S., Anklam E. (2001) - HPLC flavonoid profiles as markers for the botanical origin of European unifloral honeys. J. Sci. Food. Agric., 81: 485-496.

Truchado P., Tourn E., Gallez L. M., Moreno D. A., Ferreres F., Tomás-Barberán F. A. (2010) - Identification of botanical biomarkers in Argentinean Diplotaxis honeys: flavonoids and glucosinolates. J. Agr. Food. Chem., 58(24): 12678-85.

Warakomska, Z., Maciejewicz W. (1992) - Microscopic analysis of propolis from Polish regions. Apidologie, 23: 277-283.

Journal of Apicultural Science

The Journal of Research Institute of Horticulture and Apicultural Research Association

Journal Information

IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 0.75
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.007

CiteScore 2017: 0.92

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.345
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.461

Cited By


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 227 227 10
PDF Downloads 97 97 6