In ancient structures such as Jabalieh dome at Kerman and Dokhtar Bridge at Mianeh in Iran, it was said that egg and in some cases egg and camel milk were used in the mortar. Thus, it was imagined that the stability of these structures were based on these traditional materials. Therefore egg parts and also camel milk were used as a portion of water in the concrete to evaluate this traditional theory. For this purpose, 16 concrete mix designs included 144 cubes, 16 cylinders and 16 prisms were casted. Various percentages of albumen, yolk or camel milk were used. Results showed that by substituting 0.5% of water content with albumen, compressive strength was similar to control specimen. But splitting tensile strength and three-point flexural strength were 7.2% and 18.9% higher than control specimen, respectively. Moreover, because of camel milk’s fat, usage of this material was not suggested.
Bing, L.Y., 2010. Effect of foamed concrete with egg albumen. Master of Science Dissertation, University Malaysia Pahang.
Bouzoubaa, N., and Lachemi, M., 2001. Self-compacting concrete incorporating high volumes of class F fly ash: Preliminary results. Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 413-420.
Dhanalakshmi, M., Sowmya, N.J., and Chandrashekar, A., 2015. A comparative study on egg shell concrete with partial replacement of cement by fly ash. International Journal for Research in Applied Science and Engineering Technology, vol. 3, pp.12-20.
Dixit, M., Meena, A., Malik, A., Chhinderpal, and Sundesha, K., 2016. Effect of using egg shell powder and micro silica partially in place of cement in M25 concrete. International Journal of Civil Engineering, vol. 3, pp. 278-282.
Gowsika, D., Sarankokila, S., and Sargunan, K., 2014. Experimental investigation of egg shell powder as partial replacement with cement in concrete. International Journal of Engineering Trend and Technology, vol. 14, No.2, pp. 65-68.
Ikotun, B.D., 2009. The effect of a modified zeolite additive as a cement and concrete improver. Master of Science Dissertation, Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.
Li, G., 2004. Properties of high-volume fly ash concrete incorporating nano-SiO2. Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 1043-1049.
Markiv, T., Sobol, K., Franus, M., and Franus, W., 2016.Mechanical and durability properties of concretes incorporating natural zeolite. Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, vol. 16, pp. 554-562.
Mehta, P.K., 1982. Properties of Portland cement concrete containing fly ash and condensed silica-fume. Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 587-595.
Meyer, C., and Xi, Y., 1999. Use of recycled glass and fly ash for precast concrete. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, vol. 11, no. 2.
Qureshi, A.M., Sharma, Y.V., Khan, S.R., and Sontakke, B.M., 2015. An experimental investigation to check the effect of egg shell powder and rice husk ash on property of concrete. International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication, vol. 3, pp. 67-70.
Siang, T.E., 2010. Effect of coconut fiber and egg albumen in concrete for greener environment. Master of Science Dissertation, University Malaysia Pahang.
Teixeira, E.R., Mateus, R., Camoes, A.F., Braganca, L., and Branco, F.G., 2016.Comparative environmental life-cycle analysis of concretes using biomass and coal fly ashes as partial cement replacement material. Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 112, pp. 2221-2230.
Thomas, M.D.A., and Bamforth, P.B., 1999. Modelling chloride diffusion in concrete: Effect of fly ash and slag. Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 487-495.
Valipour, M., Shekarchi, M., and Arezoumandi, M., 2017. Chlorine diffusion resistivity of sustainable green concrete in harsh marine environments. Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 142, no. 4, pp. 4092-4100.
Yusef, N., 2014. The effect of egg and lime on the compressive strength of mortar. Master of science Thesis, Addis Araba University.