Exploring the Energy Implication of Urban Density in Residential Buildings

Open access

Abstract

In the context of the Algerian energy policy, and through the review of the Algiers’ residential building stock, this paper explores the correlation between the energy consumption of gas and electricity with urban density. Based on a holistic approach of the 57 Algiers’ municipalities, the analysis is organized in two ways. Firstly, the spatial approach is conducted within a GIS implementation, carried out based on the 2013 aggregated annual energy consumption data. The cross analysis of Electricity and Gas consumption and density of population within a GIS spatial distribution approach shows effectively a strong correlation between urban density and energy consumption with a Pearson correlation of −56% and −65% of the Electricity and Gas consumption in the urban municipalities, respectively. Also, the household located in the suburban municipalities consume clearly more energy than the urban centered ones. Based on the electricity and gas consumption, density and carbon footprint we have clustered, within a PCA, the Algiers’ municipalities into three profiles: the “thrifty”, the “intermediate” and the “wasteful” profile.

ADEME, 2010, Bilan Carbone®, Entreprise et collectivités, Guide des facteurs d’émission (Emission factors guide), V 6.1, Chapter 2.

Banister, D., Watson, S. and Wood C. (1997), Sustainable Cities, Transport, Energy and Urban Form, Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, Vol. 24, pp. 125-143.

Breheny M., (1995), The compact city and transport energy consumption, Transactions of. The Institute of British Geographers, New Series, Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 81-101.

Camagni Roberto, Paolo Rigamonti, Maria Cristina Gibelli, (2002), “Forme urbaine et mobilité: les coûts collectifs des différents types d’extension urbaine dans l’agglomération milanaise” (Urban form and mobility: the collective costs of the different types of urban extension in the Milanese agglomeration), Revue d’économie régionale et urbaine, n°1, pp. 105-140.

Cervero R. (1994), Transit-based housing in California: evidence on ridership impacts. PO/. 1, 174-183.

Cervero, R. (1996), California’s Transit Village Movement. Journal of Public Transportation 1, 1: 103-130.

C.M. Hui, (2001), Low energy building design in high density urban cities. Renewable Energy 24, pp. 627–640.

Constantinos A. Balarasa, Athina G. Gagliaa, Elena Georgopouloub, Sevastianos Mirasgedisb, Yiannis Sarafidisb, Dimitris P. Lalas (2007), European residential buildings and empirical assessment of the Hellenic building stock, energy consumption, emissions and potential energy savings. Building and Environment, 42, pp. 1298–1314.

Eirik Rescha, Rolf André Bohnea, Trond Kvamsdalb, Jardar Lohnea (2016), Impact of urban density and building height on energy use in cities, in SBE16 Energy Procedia 96 (2016), pp. 800–814.

European Commission, (2011) Regional Policy Cities, of tomorrow, challenges, visions, ways forward, Luxembourg PO, 112 p., ISBN: 978-92-79-21307-6.

Felix Creutzig, Giovanni Baiocchi, Robert Bierkandt, Peter-Paul Pichler, Karen C. Seto (2015), Global typology of urban energy use and potentials for an urbanization mitigation wedge, in Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol. 112 no. 20, 6283–6288, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1315545112.

FOUCHIER V. (1997), Des fortes densités urbaines. Les villes nouvelles dans l’espace métropolitain (High urban densities. New cities in the metropolitan area), Phd thesis, University of Paris VIII.

Gordon, P., and H.W. Richardson (1996), Beyond polycentricity: the dispersed metropolis, Los Angeles, 1970-1990, Journal of American Planning Association, 62 (3).

Holden, E., and I. T. Norland (2005). Three Challenges for the Compact City as a Sustainable Urban Form: Household consumption of Energy and Transport in Eight Residential Areas in the Greater Oslo Region. Urban Studies 42 (12): 2145.

Isabelle Lariviere, Gaetan Lafrance (1999), Modelling the electricity consumption of cities: effect of urban density, Energy Economics 21 53-66.

K. Steemers (2003), Energy and the city: density, buildings and transport, Energy and Buildings (35) 3–14.

Lariviere, Isabelle, and Gaëtan Lafrance (1999). Modelling the Electricity Consumption of Cities: Effect of Urban Density. Energy economics 21 (1): 53–66.

Manoj Kumar Singh, Sadhan Mahapatra, Jacques Teller (2013), An analysis on energy efficiency initiatives in the building stock of Liege, Belgium, Energy Policy, 62, pp. 729–741.

Newman, P. W. G. and J. R. Kenworthy (1989). Cities and Automobile Dependence: An International Sourcebook. Aldershot, UK: Gower.

ONM (2004), office national de météorologie, weather Data of Algiers (1994-2004), Algeria.

ONS (2008), office national de statistiques, Census data 2008, Algeria.

ONS (2013), office national de statistiques, population Data, Algeria.

Pitt, Damian. (2012a), Assessing Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emission Savings from Compact Housing: A Small-town Case Study. Local Environment: The International Journal of Justice and Sustainability. doi:10.1080/13549839.2012.748724.

Pitt, Damian. (2012b). Evaluating the Greenhouse Gas Reduction Benefits of Compact Housing Development. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management. 56 (4): 588–606.

Serge Salat (2011), Les villes et les formes urbaines: sur l’urbanisme durable (Cities and urban forms: on sustainable urban planning), éd Hermann, France.

Steadman, P. (1979). Energy and patterns of land use. In: Energy conservation through building design. Ed. Watson, D. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp. 246-260.

The Urban Task Force (1999), Towards an Urban Renaissance, E&FN Spon, London, June.

Yekang Ko (2013), Urban Form and Residential Energy Use: A Review of Design Principles and Research Findings, Journal of Planning Literature, 28(4), pp. 327-351, DOI: 10.1177/0885412213491499.

Journal Information

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 450 299 18
PDF Downloads 203 152 13