After the London bombings in July 2005, the concern of terrorism scholars and policy makers has turned to “home-grown” terrorism and potential for political violence from within the states. “Radicalization” became a new buzz word. This article follows a number of reviews of the literature on radicalization and offers another angle for looking at this research. First, it discusses the term “radicalization” and suggests the use of the following definition of radicalization as a process by which a person adopts belief systems which justify the use of violence to effect social change and comes to actively support as well as employ violent means for political purposes. Next, it proposes to see the theories of radicalization focusing on the individual and the two dimensions of his/her motivation: whether that motivation is internal or external and whether it is due to personal choice or either internal (due to some psychological traits) or external compulsion. Though not all theories fall neatly within these categories, they make it possible to make comparisons of contributions from a variety of different areas thus reflecting on the interdisciplinary nature of the study of terrorism in general and radicalization as a part of it.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Bjørgo Tore. Strategies for Preventing Terrorism. Houndmills: Palgrave MacMillan 2013.
Bongar Bruce. “The Psychology of Terrorism: Defining the Need and Describing the Goals’ Psychology of Terrorism.” Bongar Bruce ed. Psychology of Terrorism. Oxford: Oxford University Press 2007.
Borum Randy. Psychology of Terrorism. Tampa: University of South Florida Web. 2004. .
Bush George W. “President Bush’s Speech in Monterrey Mexico.” PBS Newshour Web. 22 March 2002 .
Carpenter Joel. Revive Us Again: The Reawakening of American Fundamentalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press 1997.
Crenshaw Martha. “The Logic of Terrorism: Terrorist Behavior as a Product of Strategic Choice.” Reich Walter. Origins of Terrorism: Psychologies Ideologies Theologies States of Mind. Washington D.C.: Woodrow Wilson Center Press 1998.
Dalgaard-Nielsen Anja. Studying violent radicalization in Europe. Part I. Potential Contribution of Social Movement Theory. DIIS Working Paper. Copenhagen: Danish Institute for International Studies 2008.
-----. Studying violent radicalization in Europe. Part II. The potential contribution of socio-psychological and psychological approaches. DIIS Working paper. Copenhagen: Danish Institute for International Studies 2008.
Della Porta D. Social movements political violence and the state: a comparative analysis of Italy and Germany. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1995.
English Richard. Terrorism. How to Respond. Oxford: Oxford University Press 2009.
European Commission Expert Group. Radicalization Processes Leading to Acts of Terrorism. Brussels: European Commission 2008.
Ferracuti F. “Ideology and repentance: Terrorism in Italy.” Reich W. Origins of Terrorism. Psychologies Ideologies Theologies States of Mind. Washington: Woodrow Wilson Center Press 1998.
German Mike. “Debunked NYPD Radicalization Report Just Won’t Die.” Web. 2013
Gurr Ted. Why Men Rebel. Princeton: Princeton University Press 2010 (1970).
Homeland Security Institute. Radicalization: An Overview and Annotated Biography of Open-Source Literature. Final Report. Arlington: Homeland Security Institute 2006.
House of Commons Home Affairs Committee. Roots of Violent Radicalization. London: Stationery Office Limited 2012.
Huq Aziz. “Modelling Terrorist Radicalization.” Duke Forum for Law and Social Change 2010.
McCauley Clark and Sophia Moskalenko. Friction. How Radicalization Happens to Them and Us. Oxford: Oxford University Press 2011.
-----. “Measuring Political Mobilization: The Distinction Between Activism and Radicalism.” Terrorism and Political Violence 2009.
Moghaddam Fathali. “The Staircase to Terrorism: A Psychology Exploration.” Bongar Bruce et al. Psychology of Terrorism. Oxford: Oxford University Press (2007): 69-80.
Muslim American Civil Liberties Coalition. “CountertERRORism policy. MACLC’s Critique of the NYPD’s Report on Homegrown Radicalism”2008.
Nasser-Eddine Minerva et al. Countering Violent Extremism (CVE) Literature Review. Edinburgh South Austalia: Counter Terrorism and Security Technology centre 2011.
Neumann Peter. “Introduction.” Neumann Peter ed. Perspectives on Radicalization and Political Violence. London: International Centre for the Study of Radicalization and Political Violence 2008.
NYPD. Radicalization in the West. The homegrown threat. New York: NYPD Intelligence Division 2007.
Pisiou Daniela. Islamist Radicalisation in Europe. An Occupational change process. London: Routledge 2012.
Post Jerrold. “Terrorist psycho-logic: Terrorist behavior as a product of psychological forces.” Reich Walter. Origins of terrorism. Psychologies ideologies theologies states of mind. Washington: Woodrow Wilson Center Press 1998.
Rae Johnathan. “Will it ever be possible to profile terrorist?” Journal of Terrorism Research (2012).
Richardson Louise ed. The Roots of Terrorism. Madrid: Club de Madrid series on Democracy and Terrorism 2006.
Roy Olivier. Globalized Islam. The Search for a New Ummah. London: C Hurst & Co Publishers Ltd 2001.
Rubenstein Richard. Alchemists of revolution. Terrorism in the modern world. New York: Basic Books 1987.
Sageman Marc. Understanding Terror Networks. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press 2004.
Schmid Alex. Radicalisation De-Radicalisation Counter-Radicalisation: A Conceptual Discussion and Literature Review. ICCT Research Paper. The Hague: International Centre for Counter-Terrorism 2013.
Sedgwick Mark. “The Concept of Radicalization as a Source of Confusion.” Terrorism and Political Violence (2010): 479-494.
Silke A. Research on Terrorism. Trends Achievements and Failures. London: Frank Cass 2004.
-----. “The Devil You Know: Continuing Problems with Research on Terrorism.” Terrorism and political violence 2001.
Silke A. “The impact of 9/11 on research on terrorism.” Ranstorp M. Mapping Terrorism Research. State of the art gaps and future direction. London: Routledge 2007.
Stampnitzky Lisa. Disciplining terror: How experts invented “Terrorism.” Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2014.
Zartman W. “Need Creed and Greed in Intrastate Conflict.” Arnson C. and W. Zartman. Rethinking the Economics of War. The Intersection of Need Creed and Greed. Washington: Woodrow Wilson Center Press 2005.
Tilly Charles and Sydney Tarrow. Contentious politics. OUP USA 2012.
Trujillo Humberto Juan Ramirez and Ferran Alonso. “Indicios de persuasión coercitiva en el adoctrinamiento de terroristas yihadistas: hacia la radicalización violenta.” Universitas Psychologica (2009).
Wintrobe Ronald. “Can suicide bombers be rational?” 2001. http://www.diw.de/deutsch/service/veranstaltungen/ws_consequences/docs/diw_ws_consequences200206_wintroepdf. 6 September 2007.
Volkan Vamik. “September 11 and Societal Regression.” Group Analysis (2002).