The paper provides a comprehensive overview of European radical parties. The main aim of this paper is to examine whether there are common patterns regarding these parties, and to analyse the implications of this phenomenon. In order to achieve the above, the paper proceeds as follows: Firstly, the phenomenon of political radicalisation in contemporary Europe is explored. This leads to mapping the radical political landscape in Europe. Finally, the paper concludes with the analysis of the possible outcomes of radicalisation of European politics including the possible societal effects. By doing so the paper argues that a fresh theoretical approach to comprehend the phenomenon is necessary.
“Le Pen seeks to unite Right for EU fight on immigration.” The Times, Retrieved on October 16, 2013 from http://www.thetimes.co.uk/tto/news/world/europe/article3895504.ece
“Political Insurgency, Europe’s Tea Parties.” The Economist From the printed edition, January 4, 2014, Retrieved on January 4, 2014 from: http://www.economist.com/news/leaders/21592610-insurgent-parties-are-likely-do--better-2014-any-time-second-world)
Arzheimer, K. “Contextual Factors and the Extreme Right Vote in Western Europe, 1980-2002.” American Journal of Political Science, Vol. 53, No. 2 (Apr., 2009), pp. 259-275.
Belanger, E. and K. Aarts. “Explaining the rise of the LPF. Issues, discontent, and the 2002 Dutch Election.” Acta Politica,2006, 41: 4-20.
Buzan, B. and O. Wæver. Regions and Powers: The Structure of International Security. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003
Davies, G. and T. Mian. The reputation of the party leader and of the party being led, European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 44 Issue: 3/4, 2010, pp. 331-350.a
Flecker, J. “Potentials of Political Subjectivity and the Various Approaches to the Extreme Right: Findings in the Qualitative Research,” Changing Working Life and the Appeal of the Extreme Right. ed. J. Flecker Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007.
Friedman, G., “A Question of Integration,” Geopolitical Intelligence Report, November 8, 2005.
Garzia, D. “The Rise of Party/Leader Identification.” Western Europe, Political Research Quarterly, September 2013.
Giddens, A., Beyond Left and Right: The Future of Radical Politics, Cambrige, Oxford: Polity Press, 1994.
Givens, T. E. Voting Radical Right in Western Europe, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
Goodwin, J. and J. M. Jasper. The Social Movements Reader: Cases and Concepts, Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 2009.
Harmel, R. and K. Janda. An Integrated Theory of Party Goals and Party Change, Journal of Theoretical Politics, July 1994, 6: 259-287.
Holton, R. “Globalization’s Cultural Consequences.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 570, Dimensions of Globalization. (Jul., 2000), pp. 140-152.
Ignazi, P. Extreme Right Parties in Western Europe, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.
Ivarsflaten, E. “What Unites Right-Wing Populists in Western Europe? Re-examining Grievance Mobilization Models in Seven Successful Cases.” Comparative Political Studies 41(1): 3-23, 2008.
Kemper, T. D. “A Structural Approach to Social Movment Emotions.” Passionate Politics: Emotions and Social Movements. Eds. J. Goodwin, J. M. Jasper & F. Polletta Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001.
Kitschelt, H. The Radical Right in Western Europe: A Comparative Analysis. Michigan: Michigan University Press, 1997.
Laqueuer, W. The Last Days of Europe: An Epitaph for an Old Continent. New York: Thomas Dunne Books/St. Martin’s Press, 2007.
Lubbers, M., Gijsberts M., and P. Scheepers. “Extreme Right-Wing Voting in Western Europe.” European Journal of Political Research 41(3): 345-78, 2002.
Luther, K., R. “Of goals and own goals: A case study of right-wing populist party strategy for and during incumbency.” Party Politics 17: 453-470, 2011.
Mastnak, T. Islam and the Creation of European Identity. London: University of Westminster Press, 1994.
Newman, S. Unstable Universalities: Poststructuralism and Radical Politics, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2007.
Norris, P. Radical Right: Voters and Parties in the Electoral Market, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
Roe, P. “The Societal Security Dilemma.” Copenhagen Peace Research. Institute Working Papers, June 1996.
Rydgren, J. Ed. Class Politics and the Radical Right. New York: Routledge, 2013.
Spinner-Halev, J., & Theiss-Morse, E., “National Identity and Self-Esteem.” Perspectives on Politics Vol. 1, No. 3. 2003., pp. 515-532.
Stewart, M.C. and H. D. Clarke. “The (Un)Importance of Party Leaders: Leader Images and Party Choice in the 1987 British Election.” The Journal of Politics Vol. 54, Issue 02, 1992, pp. 447-470.
Van Der Brug, W. and F. Meindert. “Protest or Mainstream? How the European Anti-Immigrant Parties Developed into Two Separate Groups by 1999.” European Journal of Political Research 42(1), 2003, pp. 55-76.
Wæver, O., Buzan, B., Kelstrup, M. and P. Lemaitre. Migration And the New Security Agenda in Europe. London: Pinter Publishers Ltd, 1993.
Watson, H. & Boag, J. “CIAO: Ethnicity and Religion.” Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs. 2000.
Wihtol de Wenden, K. “Europe, immigration unwanted.” European Affairs Fall/ Winter 2006.
Williams, M. H. The Impact of Radical Right-Wing Parties in West European Democracies. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006.