Review article. Predicting disease onset in clinically healthy people

Open access

Abstract

Virtually all human disease is induced by oxidative stress. Oxidative stress, which is caused by toxic environmental exposure, the presence of disease, lifestyle choices, stress, chronic inflammation or combinations of these, is responsible for most disease. Oxidative stress from all sources is additive and it is the total oxidative stress from all sources that induces the onset of most disease. Oxidative stress leads to lipid peroxidation, which in turn produces Malondialdehyde. Serum malondialdehyde level is an additive parameter resulting from all sources of oxidative stress and, therefore, is a reliable indicator of total oxidative stress which can be used to predict the onset of disease in clinically asymptomatic individuals and to suggest the need for treatment that can prevent much human disease.

Abdel-Salam OME, Salem NA, El-Shamarka MES, Hussein JS, Ahmed NAS, El- Nagar MES. (2012). Studies on the eff ects of aspartame on memory and oxidative stress in brain of mice. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 16: 2092-2101.

Abdullahi M, Larijani B, Rahimi R, Salari P. (2005). Role of oxidative stress in osteoporosis. Summary Therapy 2(5): 787-96.

Abella A, Santoro A, Scotece M, Conde J, Lopez-Lopez V, Lazzaro V et al., (2015). Non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB 101, PCB 153 and PCB 180) induce chondrocyte cell death through multiple pathways. Toxicol Lett 234(1): 13-19.

Adedara IA, Abolaji AO, Odion BE, Okwudi IJ, Omoloja AA, Farombi EO. (2014). Impairment of hepatic and renal functions by 2.5-hexanedione is accompanied by oxidative stress in rats. J Toxicol. 2014: Article ID 239240, 9 pages.

Aflanie I. (2015). Eff ect of heavy metal on malondialdehyde and advanced oxidation protein products concentration: A focus on arsenic, cadmium and mercury. J Med Bioengen 4(4): 332-37.

Agarwal S, Ghosh A, Chatterjee SN. (1987). Spontaneous release of malondialdehyde from ultraviolet light exposed liposomal membranes. Z Naturforsch 42c: 585-88.

Aich P, Potter A, Griebel PJ. (2009). Modern approaches to understanding stress and disease susceptibility: a review with special emphasis on respiratory disease. Int J Gen Med 2: 19-32.

Akaike T. (2001). Role of free radicals in viral pathogenesis and mutation. Rev Med Virol 11(2): 87-101.

Alsamarai AM, Alwan AM, Ahmad AH, Salib MA, Salih JA, Aldabagh MA et al., (2009). The relationship between asthma and allergic rhinitis in the Iraqi population. Allergology, Int 58: 649-55.

Andresen HM, Regueira HT, Leighton F. (2006). Oxidative stress in critically ill patients. Rev Med Chil 134(5): 649-56.

Andriollo-Sanchez M, Hininger-Favier I, Meunier N, Venneria E, O’Connor JM, Maiani G, Coudray C, Roussel AM. (2005). Age-related oxidative stress and antioxidant parameters in middle-aged and older European subjects: the ZENITH study. Eur J Clin Nutr 59(Suppl 2): S58-62.

Arcavi L, Benowitz NL. (2004). Cigarette smoking and infection free. Arch Int Med 164(20): 2206-16.

Arrebola JP, Pumarega J, Gasull M, Fernandz MF,Martin-Olmedo P, Molina- Molina JM et al., (2013). Adipose tissue concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and prevalence of type 2 diabetes in adults from Southern Spain. Environ Res 122: 31-37.

Aryal M, Pandeya A, Gautam N, Baral N, Lamsal M, Majhi S et al., (2007). Oxidativew stress in prostate hyperplasia. Nepal Med Coll J 9(4): 222-24.

Ayala A, Munoz MF, Arguelles S. (2014). Lipid peroxidation: production, metabolism, and signaling mechanosms of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal. Oxidative Med Cellular Longevity 2014: Article ID 360438, 31 pages.

Azeez OM, Akhigbe RE, Anigbogu CN. (2013). Oxidative stress in rat kidney exposured to petroleum hydrocarbons. J Nat Sci Biol Med 4(1): 149-54.

Bagaitkar. Demuth DR, Scott DA. (2008). Tobacco use increases susceptibility to bacterial infection. Tobacco Induced Diseases 4: 12.

Baillie-Hamilton PF. (2002). Chemical toxins: a hypothesis to explain the global obesity epidemic. J Altern Complement Med 8(2): 185-92.

Baipai A, Verma AK, Srivastava M, Srivastave R. (2014). Oxidative stress and major depression. J Clin Diagn Res 8(12): CC04-077.

Bamonti F, Novembrino C, Ippolito S, Soresi E, Ciani A, Lonati S et al., (2006). Increased free malondialdehyde concentrations in smokers normalise with a mixed fruit and vegetable juice concentrate: a pilot study. Clin Chem Lab Med 44(4): 391-95.

Banerjee BD, Seth V, Bhattacharya A, Pasha ST, Chakraborty AK. (1999). Biochemical eff ects of some pesticides on lipid peroxidation and free-radical scavengers. Toxicol Lett 107(1-3): 33-47.

Barber SC, Mead RJ, Shaw PJ. (2006). Oxidative stress in ALS: a mechanism of neurodegeneration and a therapeutic target. Biochim Biophy Acta 1762(11-12): 1051-67.

Bartoli ML, Novelli F, Costa I, Malagrino L, Melosini E, Bacci S et al., (2011). Malondialdehyde in exhaled breath condensate as a marker of oxidative stress in diff erent pulmonary diseases. Mediators of Infl amm. 2011: Article ID 891752, 7 pages.

Basaranoglu M, Basaranoglu G, Bugianesi E. (2015). Carbohydrate intake and non alcoholic fatty liver disease: fructose as a weapon of mass destruction. HepatoBiliary Surg Nutr 4(2): 109-116.

Bashir S, Harris G, Denman MA, Blake DR, Winyard PG. (1993). Oxidative DNA damage and cellular stress in human autoimmune disease. Ann Rheumatic Dis 52: 659-66.

Benotti MJ, Trenholm RA, Vanderford BJ, Holady JC, Stanford BD, Snyder SA. (2009). Pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting compounds in U.S. drinking water. Environ Sci Tech 43(3): 597-603.

Bhattacharyya A, Chattopadhyay R, Mitra S, Crowe SE. (2014). Oxidative stress: an essential factor in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal mucosal diseases. Physiol Rev 94: 329-54.

Bhutia Y, Ghosh A, Sherpa ML, Pal R, Kumar-Mohanta P. (2011). Aerum malondialdehyde level: surrogate stress marker in the Sikkinmese diabetics. J Nat Sci Biol Med 2(1): 107-112.

Bickers DR, Athar M. (2006). Oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of skin diseases. J Invest Dermatol 126(12): 2565-75.

Bitla AR, Reddy EP, Sambasivaih K, Suchitra M, Reddy VS, Rao S. (2011). Evaluation of plasma malondialdehyde as a biomarker in patients with carcinoma of the stomach. Biomed Res 22(1): 63-68.

Blanton L, Peacock G, Cox C, Jhung M, Finelli L Moore C. (2012). Neurologic disorders among pediatric death associated with the (2009) pandemic infl uenza. Pediatrics 130(3): 390-96.

Bloomer RJ. (2007). Decreased blood antioxidant capacity and increased lipid peroxidation in young cigarette smokers compared to nonsmokers: impact of dietary intake. Nutr J 6: 39.

Boaz M, Matas Z, Biro A, Katzir Z, Green M, Fainaru M, Smetana S. (1999). Serum malondialdehyde and prevalent cardiovascular disease in hemodialysis. Kidney Int 56: 1078-83.

Bouayed J, Rammal J, Soulimani R. (2009). Oxidative stress and anxiety. Oxidative Med Cellular Longevity 2(2): 63-67.

Bove GE Jr, Rogerson PA, Vena JE. (2007). Case control study of the geographic variability of exposure to disinfectant byproducts and risk for rectal cancer. Int J Health Geog 6: 18.

Bouhafs RK, Jastrand C. (1999). Phagocyte-induced lipid peroxidation of lung surfactant. Pediatr Pulmonol 27(5): 322-27.

Bouvard V, Loomis D, Guyton KZ, Grosse Y. (2015). Carcinogencity of consumption of red and processed meat. Lancet Oncol 16(16): 1599-1600.

Bovalino S, Charleson G, Szoeke C. (2016). The impact of red and processed meat consumption on cardiovascular disease risk in women. Nutrition 32(3): 349-54.

Brkic S, Tomic S, Maric D, Novakov MA, Turkulov V. (2010). Lipid peroxidation is elevated in female patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Med Sci Monit 16(12): CR628-32.

Brown NS, Bicknell R. (2001). Hypoxia and oxidative stress in breast cancer. Oxidative stress: its eff ects on the growth, metastatic potential and response to therapy of breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res 3: 323-27.

Brown RE, Sharma AM, Ardern CI, Mirdarmadi P, Mirdarmadi P, Kuk JL. (2016). Secular diff erences in the association between caloric intake, macronutirent intake, and physical activity with obesity. Obes Res Clin Pract. 10(3): 243-55.

Browne MA, Crump P, Niven SJ, Teuten E, Tonkin A, Galloway T, Thompson R. (2011). Accumulation of microplastic on shorelines worldwide: sources and sinks. Environ Sci Technol 45(21): 9175-79.

Bulut M, Selek S, Gergerlioglu HS, Savas HA, Yilmaz HR, Yuce M, Ekici G. (2007). Malondialdehyde levels in adult attention-defi cit hyperactivity disorder. J Psychiatry Neurosci 32(6): 435-38.

Cabezas-Opazo FA, Vergara-Pulgar K, Perez MJ, Jara C Osorio-Fuentealba C, Quintanilla RA. (2015). Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2015: Article ID 509654, 12 pages.

Cemek M, Buyukokuroglu ME, Sertkaya F, Alpdagras S, Hazini, A, Onul A, Gones S. (2014). Eff ects of food color additives on antioxidant functions and bioelement contents of kidney and brain tissues in rats. J Food Nutr Res 2(10): 686-91.

CDC. (2015). Flu and people with diabetes. Centers for Disease Control (2015). http://www.cdc.gov/flu/diabetes.

CDC (2015)a. Leading causes of death. Centers for Disease control (2015). http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/leading-causes-of-death.htm

Cemek M, Dede S, Bayiroglu F, Caksen H, Cemek F, Yuka K. (2005). Oxidant and antioxidant levels in children with acute otitis media and tonsillitis: a comparative study. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 69(6): 823-27.

Cemek M, Buyukokuroglu ME, Alpdagtas S, Hazini A, Onul A, Gones S. (2014). Eff ects of food color additives on antioxidant functions and bioelement contents of liver, kidney and bran tissues in rats. J Food Nutr Res 2(10): 686-91.

Chakravarty S, Rizvi SI. (2011). Day and night GSH and MDA levels in healthy adults and eff ects of diff erent doses of melatonin on these parameters. Int J Cell Biol 2011: Article ID 404591, 5 pages.

Chaput JP, Despres JP, Bouchard C, Tremblay A. (2008). The association between sleep duration and weight gain in adults: a 6-year prospective study for the Quebec family study. Sleep 31(4): 517-23.

Chellappan D, Joseph J, Shabi MM, Krishnamoorthy G, Ravindran D, Uthrapathy S et al., (2008). Psycho-emotional stress - a cause of coronary artery disease. Acta Scientiae Vet 36(2): 133-39.

Chen CC, McCarl BA. (2001). An investigation of the relationship between pesticide usage and climate change. Climate Change 50: 475-87.

Chi MJ, Yu E, Liu WW, Lee MC, Chung MH. (2014). The bidirectional relationship between myocardial infarction and depressive disorders. Int J Cardiol 177(3): 854-59.

Choi YJ, Seelbach MJ, Pu H, Eum SY, Cen L, Zhang B et al., (2010). Polychlorinated biphenyls disrupt intestinal integrity via NADPH oxidase-induced alterations of tight junction protein expression. Environ Health Perspect 118(7): 976-81.

Chole RH, Patil RN, Basak A, Palandurkar K, Bhowate R. (2010). Estimation of serum malondialdehyde in oral cancer and precancer and its association with health individuals, gender, alcohol, and tobacco abuse. J Cancer Res Ther 6(4): 487-91.

Cichoz-Lach H, Michalek A. (2014). Oxidative stress as a crucial factor in liver diseases. World J Gastroenterol 20(25): 8082-91.

Cohen S, Janicki-Deverts D, Doyle WJ. (2015). Self-related health in healthy adults and susceptibility to the common cold. Psychosomatic Med 77(9): 959-68.

Colborn T, Dumanoski D, Myers JP. (1996). Our Stolen Future. Dutton Penguin Books, New York.

Corradi M, Rubinstein R, Andreoli R, Manini P, Caglieri A, Poli D et al., (2003). Aldehydes in exhaled breath condensate of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Resp Critical Care Med 167: 1380-86.

Coscun O, Yuncu M, Kanter M, Buyukbas S. (2006). Ebelsen protects against oxidative and morphological eff ects of high concentration chronic toluene exposure on rat sciatic nerves. Eur J Gen Med 3(2): 64-72.

Csoka AB, Szyf M. (2009). Epigenetic side-eff ects of common pharmaceuticals: a potential new fi eld in medicine and pharmacology. Med Hypothesis 73(5): 770-80.

Crous-Bou M, Fung TT, Prescott J, Julin B, Du M, Sun Q et al., (2014). Mediterannean diet and telomer length in Nurses’ Health Study: population based cohort study. BMJ 349: g6674.

Cui J, Xiao Y, Shi YH, Wang B, Le GW. (2012). Lipoic acid attenuates high-fatinduced oxidative stress and B-cell-related immune depression. Nutrition 28(3): 275-80.

Dale-Donne I, Rossi R, Colombo R, Giustarini D, Milzani A. (2006). Biomarkers of oxidative damage in human disease. Clin Chem 52: 601-623.

Darmon N, Pelissier MA, Heyman M, Albrecht R, Desjeux JF. (1993). Oxidative stress may contribute to the intestinal dysfunction of weanling rats fed a low protein diet. J Nutr 123(6): 1068-75.

Dasdag S, Akdag MZ, Kizil G, Kizel M, Cakir DU, Yokus B. (2012). Eff ect of 900 MHz radio frequency radiation on beta amyloid protein, protein carbonyl, and malondialdehyde in the brain. Electromag Biol Med 31(1): 67-74.

Davies KJA. (1995). Oxidative stress: the paradox of aerobic life. Biochem Soc Symp 61: 1-31.

Deavall DG, Martin EA, Horner JM, Roberts R. (2012). Drug-induced oxidative stress and toxicity. J Toxicol. 2012: Article ID 645460, 13 pages.

Delfino RJ, Staimer N, Tjoa T, Gillen DL, Schauer JJ, Shafer MM. (2013). Airway infl ammation and oxidative potential of air pollutant particles in a pediatric asthma panel. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 23(5): 466-73.

Deshpande N, Kandi S, Muddeshwar M, Ramana KV. (2014). Eff ect of alcohol consumption and oxidative stress and its role in DNA damage. Am J Biomedical Res 2(1): 7-10.

Diakos CI, Charles KA, McMillan DC, Clarke SJ. (2014). Cancer-related infl ammation and treatment eff ectiveness. Lancet Oncol 15(11): e493-503.

Dillioglugil MO, Mekik H, Muezzinoglu B, Ozkan TA, Demir CG, Dillioglugil O. (2012). Blood and tissue nitric oxide and malondialdehyde are prognostic indicators of localized prostate cancer. Int Urol Nephrol 44(6): 1691-96.

Doi K, Uetsuka K. (2011). Mechanisms or mycotoxin-induced neurotoxicity through oxidative stress-associated pathways. Int J Mol Sci 12(8): 5213-37.

Donaldson K, Li XY, MacNee W. (1998). Ultrafi ne (nanometre) particle mediated lung injury. J Aerosol Sci 29(5-6): 553-60.

Donaldson K, Tran L, Jimenez LA, Duffi n R, Newby DE, Mills N et al., (2005). Combustion-derived nanoparticles: a review of their toxicology following inhalation exposure. Particle and Fiber Toxicol. 2: 10.

Dwyer, DJ, Belencky PA, Yang JH, MacDonald IC, Martell JD, Takahashi N et al., (2014). Antibiotics induce redox-related physiological alterations as part of their lethality. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111(20): E2100-9.

Elgazar AF. (2013). Eff ects of butylated hydroxytoluene and butylated hydroxyanisole against hepatotoxicity induced by carbon tetrachlorine in rats. World Applied Sci J 22(1): 63-69.

El-Wahab HM, Moram GS. (2013). Toxic eff ects of some synthetic food colorants and/or fl avor additives on male rats. Toxicol Ind Health 29(2): 224-32.

Epel ES, Blackburn EH, Lin J, DhabharFS, Adler NE, MOrrow JD, Cawthon RM. (2004). Accelerated telomer shortening in response to life stress. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 101(49): 17312-15.

Esmekaya MA, Ozer C, Seyhan N. (2011). 900 MHz pulse-modulated radiofrequency radiation induces oxidative stress on heart, lung, testis and liver tissues. Gen Physiol Biophys 30(1): 84-89.

Faden AI, Loane DJ. (2015). Chronic neurodegeration after traumatic brain injury: Alzheimer Disease, Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy. Neurotherapeutics 12: 143-50.

Falagas ME, Kompoti M. (2006). Obesity and infection. Lancet Infect Dis 6(7): 438-46.

Federico A, Morgillo F, Tuccillo C, Ciardiello F, Loguercio C. (2007). Chronic infl ammation and oxidative stress in human carcinogenesis. Int J Cancer 121(11): 2381-86.

Fernandez-SAnchez A, Madrigal-Santillan E, Bautista M, Esquivel-Soto J, Morales- Gonzalez A, Durante-Montiel I et al., (2011). Infl ammation, oxidative stress and obesity. Int J Mol Sci 12(5): 3117-32.

Forbes JM, Coughlan MT, Cooper ME. (2008). Oxidative stress as a major culprit in kidney disease in diabetes. Diabetes 57: 1146-54.

Furukawa S, Fujita T, Shimabukuro M, Iwaki M, Yamada Y, Nakajima Y et al., (2004). Increased oxidative stress in obesity and its impact on metabolic syndrome. J Clin Investigat 114(12): 1752-61.

Gaitatzis A, Siscodiva SM, SAnder JW. (2012). The somatic comorbidity of epilepsy: a weighty but often unrecognized burden. Epilepsia 53(8): 1282-93.

Galle J. (2001). Oxidative stress in chronic renal failure. Nephrol Dial Transplant 16(11): 2135-37.

Gallo MV, Schell LM, DeCaprio AP, Jacobs A. (2011). Levels of persistent organic pollutant and their predictors among young adults. Chemosphere 83: 1374-82.

Ghone RA, Suryakar AN, Kulhalli PM, Bhagat SS, Padalkar RK, Karnik AC et al., (2013). A study of oxidative stress biomarkers and eff ect of oral antioxidant supplementation in severe acute malnutrition. J Clin Diag Res 7(10): 2146-48.

Gong J, Zhe T, Kipen H, Wang G, Hu M, Ohman-Strikland P et al., (2013). Malondialdehyde in exhaled breath condensate and urine as a biomarker of air pollution induced oxidative stress. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 23(3): 322-27.

Griendling KK, Garret A, Fitzgerald MD. (2003). Oxidative stress and cardiovascular injury. Part I: Mechanism and in vivo monitoring of ROS. Circulation 108: 1912-16.

Grivennikov SI, Greten FR, Karin M. (2010) Immunity, infl ammation and cancer. Cell 140(6): 883-99.

Grover SA, Kaouache M, Rempel P, Joseph L, Dawes M, Lau DCW, Lowensteyn I. (2015). Years of lost and healthy life-years lost from diabetes and cardiovascular disease in overweight and obese people: a modeling study. Lancet Diabetes Endocrin 3(2): 114-22.

Guarner C, Soriano G. (2005). Bacterial translocation and its consequences in patients with cirrhosis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 17: 27-31.

Guo X, Jin M, Yang M, Liu K, Li JW. (2011) Type 2 diabetes mellitus and the risk of hepatitis C virus infection: a systematic review. Sci Rep 3: 2981.

Guven N, Ozturk B, Sayal A, Ozeturk A, Ulutin T. (1999). Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system in the blood of cancerous patients with metastasis. Cancer Biochem Biophys 17(1-12): 155-62.

Halifeoglu I, CAnatan H, Ustundag B, Ilhan N, Inanc F. (2000). Eff ect of thinner inhalation on lipid peroxidation and some antioxidant enzymes of people working with paint thinner. Cell Biochem Funct 18(4): 263-67.

Halonen JI, Hansell AL, Gulliver J, Morley D, Blangiardo M, Fecht D, et al. (2015). Road traffi c noise is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and all-cause mortality in London. Eur Heart J 36(39): 2653-61.

Hanahan D, Weinberg RA. (2011). Hallmarks of cancer: the next generation. Cell 144: 646-74.

He F, Zuo L. (2015). Redox roles of reactive oxygen species in cardiovascular diseases. Int J Mol Sci 16(11): 27770-80.

Honjo K van Reekum R, Verhoeff NP. (2009). Alzheimer’s disease and infection: do infectious agents contribute to progression of Alzheimer’s disease? Alz Dement 5(4): 348-60.

Hou L, Joyce BT, Gao T, Liu L, Zheng Y, Penedo FJ et al., (2015). Blood telomere length attrition and cancer developmemnt in the normative aging study cohort. EBioMedicine 132(6): 591-96.

Hoving EB, Laing C, Rutgers HM, Teggeler M, van Doormaal JJ, Muskiet FA. (1992). Optimized determination of malondialdehyde in plasma lipid extracts using 1,3-diethy-2-thiobarbituric acid: infl uence of detection method and relations with lipids and fatty acids in plasma from healthy adults. Clin Chim Acta 208(1-2): 63-76.

Hu Y, Block G, Norkus EP, Morrow JD, Dietrich M, Hudes M. (2006). Relations of glycemic index and glycemic with plasma oxidative stress markers. Am J Clin Nutr 84: 70-76.

Hughes DA. (1999). Eff ects of dietary antioxidants on the immune function of middle-aged adults. Proc Nutr Soc 58: 79-84.

Ikemura M, Nishikawa M, Kusamori K, Fukuoka M, Yamashita F, Hashida M. (2013). Pivotal role of oxidative stress in tumor metastasis under diabetic conditions in mice. J Control Release 170(2): 191-97.

Jain SK, McVie R, Smith T. (2000). Vitamin E supplementation restores glutathione and malondialdehyde to normal concentrations in eryhtrocytes of type 1 diabetic children. Diabetes Care 23(9): 1389-94.

Jain S, Chaves SS. (2011). Obesity and infl uenza. CID 53: 422-23.

Jaurand MC, Pairon JC. (2011). Toxicity of particles: a brief history. Nanoethics and Nanotechnology. doi:

Jemmott JB, 3rd, Locke SE. (1984). Psychosocial factors, immunologic mediation, and human susceptibility to infectious diseases: how much do we know? Psychol Bull 95(1): 78-108.

Jeng HA, Pan CH, Diawara N, Chang-Chien GP, Lin WY, Huang CT et al., (2011). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in relation to immunological alteration. Occup Environ Med 68(9): 653-58.

Junqueira VB, Barros SB, Chan SS, Rodrigues L, Giavarotti L, Abud RL, Deucher GP. (2004). Aging and oxidative stress. Mol Aspects Med 25(1-2): 5-16.

Kalghati S, Spina CS, Costello JC, Liesa M, Morones-Ramirez JR, Slomovic S et al., (2013). Bactericidal antibiotics induce mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in mammalian cells. Sci Transl Med. 5(192): 192ra85.

Kalkan G, Sechin HY, Duygu F, Akbas A, Ozyurt H, Sahin M. (2014). Oxidative stress in patients with acute urticaria. Cutan Ocul Toxicol 33(2): 109-14.

Kambia N, Dine T, Gressier B, Frimat B, Cazin JL, Luyckx M et al., (2011). Correlation between exposure to phthalates and concentrations of malondialdehyde in infants and children undergoing cyclic parenteral nutrition. J Parenteral Enteral Nutr 35(3): 395-401.

Kantor ED, Rehm CD, Haas JS, Chan AT, Giovannucci EL. (2015). Trends in prescription drug use among adults in the United States from 1999-2012. JAMA 314(17): 1818-30.

Karaman U, Kiran TR, Colak C, Iraz M, Celik T, Karabulut AB. (2009). Serum malondialdehyde, glutathione and nitric oxide levels in patients infected with entamoeba coli. Int J Medicine Med Sci 1(5): 235-37.

Karbowik-Lewinska M, Szosland J, Kokoszko-Bilska A, Stepniak J, Zasada K Gesing A, Lewinski A. (2012). Direct contribution of obesity to oxidative damage to macromolecules. Neuro Endocrinol Lett 33(4): 453-61.

Katona P, Katona-Apte J. (2008). The interaction between nutrition and infection. Clin Pract 46: 1582-88.

Kaur K, Chauhan V, Gu F, Chauhan A. (2014). Bispenol A induces oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in lymphoblasts from children with autism and unaff ected siblings. Free Rad Biol Med 76: 25-33.

Kawashini S, Oikawa S. (2004). Mechanism of telomere shortening by oxidative stress. Ann NY Acad Sci 1019: 278-84.

Kayama Y, Raaz U, Jagger A, Adam M, Schellinger IN, Sakamoto M et al., (2015). Diabetic cardiovascular disease induced by oxidative stress. Int J Mol Sci 16(10): 25234-63.

Khademi H, Khozeimeh F, Tavangar A, Amini S, Ghalayani P. (2014). The serum and salivary level of malondialdehyde, vitamins A, E, and C in patient with recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Adv Biomed Res 3: 246.

Khansari N, Shakiba Y, Mahmoudi M. (2009). Chronic infl ammation and oxidative stress as a major cause of age-related diseases and cancer. Recent Pat Infl amm Allergy Drug Discov 3(1): 73-80.

Kim KJ, Yoon KY, Hong HD, Lee BY. (2015). Role of red ginseng in defense against the environmental heat stress in Sprague Dawley rats. Molecules 20: 20240-53.

Kim RO, Rhee JS, Won EJ, Lee KW, Kang CM, Lee YM, Lee JS. (2011). Ultraviolet B retards growth, induces oxidative stress, and modulates DNA repairrelated gene and heat shock protein gene expression in the monogonont rotifer, Brachionus sp. Aquat Toxicol 101(3-4): 529-39.

Kim YJ, Kim EH, Hahm KB. (2012). Oxidative stress in infl ammation-based gastrointestinal tract diseases: challenges and opportunities. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 27(6): 1004-10.

Kitahara CM, Flint AJ, Berrington de Gonzalez A, Bernstein L,, Brotzman M, MacInnis RJ et al., (2014). Association between class III obestity (BMI of 40-59 kg/m) and mortality: a pooled analysis of 20 prospective studies. PLoS Med 11(7): e1001673.

Knaapen AM, Borm PJA, Albrecht C, Schins RPF. (2004). Inhaled particles and lung cancer. Part A: mechanisms. Int J Can 109: 799-809.

Knight TR, Fariss MW, Farhood A, Jaeschke H. (2003). Role of lipid peroxidation as a mechanism of liver injury after acetamonophen overdose in mice. Toxicol Sci 76: 229-36.

Kobylewki S, Jacobson MF. (2012). Toxicology of food dyes. Int J Occup Environ Health 18(3): 220-46.

Kontush A, Mann U, Arit S, Ujeyl A, Luhrs C, Muller-Thomsen T, Beisiegel U. (2001). Infl uence of vitamin E and C supplementation on lipoprotein oxidation in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Free Rad Biol Med 31(3): 345-54.

Kruk J, Kubasik-Kladna K, Aboul-Enein HY. (2015). The role oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of eye diseases: current status and dual role of physical activity. Mini Rev Med Chem 16(3): 241-57.

Kulkarni R, Deshpande A, Saxena R, Saxena K. (2013). A study of serum malondialdehyde and cytokine in tuberculosis patients. J Clin Diagnostic Res 7(10): 2140-42.

Kumagai S, Jikimoto T, Saegusa J. (2003). Pathological roles of oxidative stress in autoimmune diseases. Rinsho Byori 51(2): 126-32 [Japanese].

Kurutas EB, Ciragil P, Gul M, Kilinc M. (2005). The eff ects of oxidative stress in urinary tract infection. Mediators of Infl amm 4: 242-44.

Lee YC, Lee CT, Lai YR, Chen VC, Stewart R. (2016). Association of asthma and anxiety: a nationwide popilation-based study in Taiwan. J Aff ect Discord 189: 98-105.

Li G, Zhang LL, Lu D, Wu P, Zheng W. (2004). Occupational exposure to welding fume among welders: alterations of manganese, iron, zinc, copper and lead in body fl uids and the oxidative stress status. J Occup Environ Med 46(3): 241-48.

Li P, Wang B, Sun F, Li Y, LI Q, Lang H et al., (2015). Mitchondrial respiratory dysfunctions of blood mononuclear cells link with cardiac disturbance in patients with early-stage heart failure. Sci Rep 5: 10229.

Lind PM, Lee DH, Jacobs DR, Salihovic S, van Bavel B, Wolff MS, Lind L. (2013). Circulating levels of persistent organic pollutants are related to retrospective assessment of life-time weight change. Chemosphere 90(3): 998-1004.

Liu J, Qu W, Kadiiska MB. (2009). Role of oxidative stress in cadmium toxicity and carcinogenesis. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 238(3): 209-14.

Liu YC, Zou XB, Chai YF, Yao YM. (2014). Macrophage polarization in infl ammatory diseases. Int J Biol Sci 10(5): 520-29.

Liu Z, Liu Y, Song Y, Zhang X, Wang S, Wang Z. (2014). Systemic oxidative stress biomarkers in chronic periodontitis: a meta analysis. Disease Markers 2014: Article ID 931083, 10 pages.

Lodovici M, Bigagli E. (2011). Oxidative stress and air pollution exposure. J Toxicol 2011: Article ID 487074, 9 pages

Lorente L, Martin MM, Abreu-Gonzalez P, Dominguez-Rodriguez A, Labarta L, Diaz C, Sole-Violan J et al., (2013). Prognostic value of malondialdehyde serum levels in sever sepsis: a multicenter study. PLoS One 8(1): e53741.

Lorente L, Martin MM, Abreu-Gonzalez P, Dominguez-Rodriguez A, Labarta L, Diaz C, Sole-Violan J et al., (2013)a. Sustained high serum malondialdehyde levles are associated with severity and mortality in septic patients. Critical Care 17: R290.

Lou J, Jin L, Wu N, Tan Y, Song Y, Gao M et al., (2013). DNA damage and oxidative stress in human B lymphoblastoid cells after combined exposure to hexavalent chromium and mickel compounds. Food Chem Toxicol 55: 533-40.

Luongo G, Avagyan R, Hongyu R, Ostman C. (2015). The washout eff ect during laundry on benzothiazole, benzotriazole, quinoline and their derivatives in clothing textiles. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 23(3): 2537-48.

Lustig RH, Mulligan K, Noworolski SM, Tai VW, Wen MJ. Erkin-Cakmak A et al., (2015). Isocaloric fructose restriction and metabolic improvement in children with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Obesity 24: 453-460.

Madebo T, Lindtjorn B, Aukrust P, Berge RK. (2003). Circulating antioxidants and lipid peroxidation products in untreated tuberculosis patients in Ethiopia. Am J Clin Nutr 78: 117-22.

Madjid M, Aboshady I, Awan I, Litovsky S, Casscells SW. (2004). Infl uenza and cardiovascular disease. Is there a relationship? Texas Heart Inst J 31(1): 4-13.

Maheshwari P, Eslicj GD. (2015). Bacterial infection and Alzheimer’s disease: a metal-analysis. J Alz Dis 43(3): 957-66.

Mahreen R, Mohsin M, Ishaq M. (2012). Signifi cantly increased levels of serum malondialdehyde in type 2 diabetics with myocardial infarction. Int J Diabetes Dev Ctries 30(1): 49-51.

Manna P, Jain SK. (2015). Obesity, oxidative stress, adipose tissue dysfunction, and the associated health risks: causes and therapeutic strategies. Metab Syndr Relat Discord 13(10): 423-44.

Marais BJ, Lonroth K, Lawn SD, Migliori GB, Mwaba K, Glaziou P et al., (2013). Tuberculosis comorbidity with communicable and nonp-communicable diseases: integrating health services and control eff orts. Lancet Infect Dis 13(5): 436-48.

Mayo P. (2015). Prevention and management of comorbid diabetes and depression. Nurs Stand 30(8): 46-54.

McEwen BS. (2006). Sleep deprivation as a neurobiologic and physiologic stressor: allostasis and allostatic load. Metabolism 10(Suppl 2): S20-23.

Meiners S, Eickelberg O, Konigshoff M. (2015). Hallmarks of ageing lung. Eur Respir H 45(3): 807-27.

Melnik BC. (2015). MiR21: an environmental driver of malignant melanoma? J Trans Med 13: 202.

Merendino RA, Salvo F, Saija A, Di Pasquale G, Tomaino A, Minciullo PL et al., (2003). Malondialdehyde in benign prostate hypertrophy: a useful marker? Mediators Infl amm 12(2): 127-28.

Mete R, Tulubas F, Oran M, Yilmaz A, Avci BA, Yildiz K et al., (2013). The role of oxidants and reactive nitrogen species in irritable bowel syndrome: a potential etiological explanation. Med Sci Monit 19: 762-66.

Metta S, Basalingappa DR, Uppala S, Mitta G. (2015). Erythrocyte antioxidant defenses against cigarette smoking in ischemic heart disease. J Clin Diagnost Res 9(6): BC08-BC11.

Milara J, Cortijo J. (2012). Tobacco, infl ammation, and respiratory tract cancer. Curr Pharmaceut Design 18: 3901-38.

Miller MW. Sadeh N. (2014). Traumatic stress, oxidative stress and posttraumatic stress disorder: meurodeneration and accelerated-aging hypothesis. Mol Psychiatry 19(11): 1156-62.

Milne GL, Seal JR, Havnilla CM, Wijtmans M, Porter NA. (2005). Identifi cation and analysis of products formed from phospholipids in the free radical oxidation of low density lipoproteins. J Lipid Re 46(2): 307-19.

Moni MA, Lio P. (2014). Nwtwork-based analysis of comorbidities risk during an infection: SARS and HIV case studies. Bioinformatics 15: 333.

Moreto F, de Oliveira E, Manda RM, Burini RC. (2014). The higher plasma malondialdehyde concentrations are determined by metabolic sybdrome-related glucolipotoxicity. Oxidat Med Cellular Longev 2014: Article ID 505368, 7 pages.

Mujahid A, Akiba Y, Toyomizu M. (2007). Acute stress induces oxidative stress and decreases adaptation in your leghorn cockerels by downregulation of avian uncoupling protein. Poult Sci 86(2): 364-71.

Nahta R, Al-Mulla F, Al-Temaimi R, Amedie A, Andrade-Vieira R, Bay SN et al., (2015). Mechanisms of environmental chemicals that enable the cancer hallmark of evasion of growth suppression. Carcinogenesis 36(Suppl 1): S2- S18.

Neel BA, Sargis RM. (2011). The paradox of progress: environmental disruption of metabolism and the diabetes epidemic. Diabetes 60: 1838-48.

Neustadt J, Pieczenik SR. (2008). Medication-induced mitochondrial damage and disease. Mol Nutr Food Res 52(7): 780-88.

Nielsen F, Mikkelsen BB, Niesen JB, Andersen HR, Grandjean P. (1997). Plasma malondialdehyde as biomarker for oxidative stress: reference interval and eff orts of life-style factors. Clin Chem 43(7): 1209-14.

Niki E. (2014). Biomarkers of lipid peroxidation in clinical material. Biochim Biophys Acta 1840(2): 809-17.

Ning Li, Sioutas C, Cho A, Schmitz D, Misra C, Sempf J et al., (2003). Ultrafi ne particulate pollutants induce oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage. Environ Health Perspect 111(4): 455-60.

Nisbet C, Yarim GF, Ciftci A, Ceneciz S, Ciftci G. (2007). Investigation of serum nitric oxide and malondialdehyde levels in cattle infected with Brucella abortus. Ankar Univ Vet Fak Derg 54: 159-63.

Noguti J, Anderson ML, Cirelli C, Ribeiro DA. (2013). Oxidative stress, cancer and sleep deprivation: is there a logical link in this association? Sleep Breath 17(3): 905-10.

Nousen EK, Franco JG, Sullivan EL. (2013). Unraveling the mechanisms responsible for the comorbidity between metabolic syndrome and mental health disorders. Neuroendocrinology 98(4): 254-66.

Nunes B, Carvalho F, Guilhermino L. (2006). Eff ects of widely used pharmaceuticals and a detergent on oxidative stress biomarkers of the crustacean Artemia parthogenetica. Chemosphere 62(4): 581-94.

Okayama Y. (2005). Oxidative stress in allergic and infl ammatory skin diseases. Curr Drug Targets Infl amm Allergy 4(4): 517-19.

Ogino K, Wang Wang DH. (2007). Biomarkers of oxidative/nitrosative stress: an approach to disease prevention. Acta Med Okayama 61: 181-89.

Olusi SO. (2002). Obesity is an independent risk factor for plasma lipid peroxidation and depletion of erythrocyte cytoprotic enzymes in humans. Int J Obes 26: 1159-64.

Onil T, Unwin N. (2015). Why the communicable/non-communicable disease dichotom is problematic for public health control strategies: implications of multimorbidity for public health systems in an era of health transition. Int Health 7(6): 390-9.

Pan Y, Johnson AR, Rea WJ. (1987). Aliphatic hydrocarbon solvents in chemically sensitive patients. Clin Ecol V(3): 126-31.

Pandey MK, Mittra P, Maheshwari P. (2013). Oxidative stress in epilepsy with comorbid psychiatric illness. Nat J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol 3(1): 92-96.

Park DY, Ahn YT, Huh CS, McGregor RA, Choi MS. (2013). Dual probiotic strains suppress high fructose-induced metabolic syndrome. World J Gastroenterol 19(2): 274-83.

Parkin DM, Stiller CA, Draper GJ, Bieber CA. (1988). The international incidence of childhood cancer. Int J Cancer 42(4): 511-20.

Patil AJ, Bhagwat VR, Patil JA, Dongre NN, Ambekar JG, Jailkhani R, Das KK. (2006). Eff ect of lead (Pb) exposure on the activity of superoxide dismutase and calatase in battery manufacturing workers (BMW) of Western Maharashtra (India) with reference to heme biosynthesis. Int J Environ Res Pub Health 3(4): 329-37.

Patterson Jr. DG, Wong LY, Turner SP, Depietro ES, McClure PC, Cash TP et al., (2009). Levels in the U.S. population of those persistent organic pollutants (2003-2004) included in the Stockholm convention or in other long-range transboundry air pollution agreements. Environ Sci Tech 43(4): 1211-18.

Patterson RM, Germolec DR. (2006).Gene expression alterations in immune system pathways following exposure to immunosuppressive chemcials. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1076: 718-27.

Pham-Huy LI, He H, Pham-Huy C. (2008). Free radicals, antioxidants in disease and health. Int J Biomed Sci 4(2): 89-96.

Pohanka M. (2013). Role of oxidative stress in infectious diseases. A review. Folia Microbiol (Praha) 58(6): 503-13.

Popovic-Dragonjic L, Jovanovic M, Vrbic M, Konstantinovic L, Kostic V, Dragonjic I. (2011). Antioxidant defense and oxidative stress in children with acute hepatitis A. Ann Saud Med 31(3): 258-62.

Pritchard C, Rosenorn-Lanng E. (2015). Neurological deaths of American adults (55-74) and the over 75’s by sex compared with 20 Western countries 1989-2010: cause for concern. Surgical Neurol Int 6: 123.

Quio Y, Sun J, Ding Y, Le G, Shi Y. (2013). Alterations of the gut microbia i highfat diet mice is strongly linked to oxidative stress. Appl Microbil Biotechnol 97(4): 1689-97.

Rajah T, Chow SC. (2015). Suppression of human T cell proliferation mediated by the Cathepsin B inhibitor, z-FA-FMK is due to oxidative stress. PLoS One 10(4): e0123711.

Ramanathan L, Gulyani S, Nienhuis R, Siegel JM. (2002). Sleep deprivation decreases superoxide dismutase activity in rat hippocampus and brainstem. Neuroreport 13(1): 1387-90.

Reuter S, Gupta SC, Chaturvedi MM, Aggarwal BB. (2010). Oxidative stress, infl ammation, and cancer: how are they linked? Free Rad Biol Med 49(11): 1603-16.

Rodayan A, Afana S, Segura PA, Sultana T, Metcalfe CD, Yargeau V. (2016). Linking drugs in wastewater to contamination of surface and drinking water. Environ Toxicol Chem. 35(4): 843-9.

Romano AD, Serviddio G, de Matthaeus A, Bellantil F, Vendemiale G. (2010). Oxidative stress and aging. J Nephrol Suppl 15: S29-36.

Romieu I, Barraza-Villarreal A, Escamilla-Nunez C, Almstrand AC, Diaz-Sanchez D, Sly PD et al., (2008). Exhaled breath malondialdehyde as a marker of eff ect of exposure to air pollution in children with asthma. J Allerge Clin Immunol 121(4): 903-9.

Salim SY, Kaplan GG, Madsen KL. (2014). Air pollution eff ects on the gut microbia. Gut microbes 5(2): 215-19.

Salzano S, Checconi P, Hanschmann EM, Lillig CH, Bowler LD, Chan P et al., (2014). Linkage of infl ammation and oxidative stress via release of glutathionylated peroxiredoxin-2, which acts as a danger signal. PNAS 111(33): 12157-62.

Salzman R, Pacal L, Tomandl J, Kankov K, Tothova EGal B et al., (2009). Elevated malondialdehyde correlates with the extent of primary tumor and predicts poor prognosis of oropharyngeal cancer. Anticancer Res 29: 4227-32.

Schneider D, Manzan MA, Crawford RB, Chen W, Kaminski NE. (2008). 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-mediated impairment of B cell diff erentiation involves dysregulation of paried box 5 (Pax5) isoform, Pax 5a. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 326(2): 463-74.

Semenkov VF, Michalski AI, Sapozhnikov AM. (2015). Heating and ultraviolet light activate anti-stress gene functions in humans. Front Genetics. 6: 245

Shah AA, Khand F, Khand TU. (2015). Eff ect of smoking on serum xanthine oxidase, malondialdehyde, ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol levels in healthy male subjects. Pak J Med Sci 31(1): 146-49.

Sonnerborg A, Carlin G, Akerlund B, Jarstrand C. (1988). Increased production of malondialdehyde in patients with HIV infection. Scand J Infect Dis 20(3): 287-90.

Sowers JR, Epstein M. (1995). Diabetes mellitus and associated hypertension, vascular disease and nephropathy. Hypertension 26: 869-79.

Splettstoesser WD, Schuff -Werner P. (2002). Oxidative stress in phagocytes-- “the enemy within.” Microsc Res Tech 57(6): 441-55.

Starakis J, Panos G, Koutras A. Mazokopakis EE. (2011). Pathogens and chronic or long-term neurologic disorders. Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets 11(1): 40-52.

Steenland K, Stayner L. (1997). Cancer Causes and Control 8(3): 491-503.

Stevens LJ, Kuczek T, Burgess JR, Stochelski MA Arnold LE, Galland L. (2013). Mechanisms of behavioral, atopic, and other reactions to artifi cial food colors in children. Nutr Rev 71(5): 268-81.

Stokes A, Preston SH. (2015). Revealing the burden of obesity using weight histories. PNAS 113(3): 572-577.

Stossel TP, Mason RJ, Smith AL. (1974). Lipid peroxidation by human blood phagocytes. J Clin Invest 54(3):638-45.

Stupnyska G, Fediv O. (2014). Mechanisms of local and systemic infl ammation in chronic obstrutive pulmonary disease with comorbid hypertension and obesity. Int J Scientifi c Tech Res 3(5): 218-22.

Sudha S, Sree JS, Saranya RS, Varun S. (2014). Evaluation of DNA damage and oxidative stress in road pavement workers occupationally exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Int Conf Adv Agri Biol Environ Sci Oct 15-16, (2014). http: //dx.doi.org/1015242/IICBE.C1014023.

Surapaneni KM, Venkatatamana G. (2007). Status of lipid peroxidation, glutathione, ascorbic acid, vitamin E and antioxidant enzymes in patients with osteoarthritis. Indian J Med Sci 61(1): 9-14.

Suzuki H, Nishihiro T, Tsugawa S, Hibi T. (2012). Roles of oxidative stress in stomach disorders. J Clin Biochem Natr 50(1): 35-39.

Tangvarasittichai S, Poonsub P, Tangvarasittichai O, Sirigulsatien V. (2009). Serum levels of malondialdehyde in type 2 diabetes mellitus Thai subjects. Siriraj Med J 61: 20-23.

Tradiff RG, Carson ML, Ginevan ME. (2007). Updated weight of evidence for an association between adverse reproductive and developmental eff ects and exposure to disinfection byproducts. Regul Toxicol Pharacol 45(2): 185-205.

Taysi S, Uslu C, Akcay F, Sutbeyaz MY. (2003). Malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels in the plasma of patients with advanced laryngeal cancer. Surg Today 33(9): 651-54.

Thiering E, Heinrich J. (2015) Epidemiology of air pollution and diabetes. Trend Endocrinol Metab 26(7): 384-94.

Tominaga H, Kodama S, Matsuda N, Suzuki K, Watanabe M. (2004). Involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the induction of genetic instability by radiation. J Radiat Res 45(2): 181-88.

Torun AN, Kulaksizouglu S, Kulaksizouglu M, Pamuk BO, Isbilen E, Tutuncu NB. (2009). Serum total antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation marker maloldialdehyde levels in overt and subclinial hypothyroidism. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 70(3): 469-74.

Tremellen K. (2008). Oxidative stress and male infertility - a clinical perspective. Human Reprod Update 14(3): 243-58.

Trouba KJ, Hamadeh HK, Amin RP, Germolec DR. (2002). Oxidative stress and its role in skin disease. Antioxid Redox Signal 4(4): 665-73.

U.S. Energy and information administration. U.S. annual energy outlook, (2014). May 7, (2014). http://www.eia.gov/forcasts/ieo/ Accessed May 6, 2016.

von Zglinicki T. (2002). Oxidative stress shortens telomeres. Trends Biochem Sci 27(7): 339-44.

Valyl-Nagy T, Dermody TS. (2005). Role of oxidative damage in the pathogenesis of viral infections of the nervous system. Histol Histopathol 20: 957-67.

Vandanmagsar B, Youm YH, Ravussin A, Galgani JE, Stadler K, Mynatt RL et al., (2011). The NALP3/NLRP3 infl ammasome instigates obesity-induced autoinfl ammation and insulin resistance. Nat Med 17(2): 179-88.

Veraldi A, Costantini AS, Bolejack V, Miligi L, Vineis P, van Loveren H. (2006). Immunotoxic eff ects of chemicals: a matrix for occupational and environmental epidemiological studies. Am J Int Med 49(12): 1046-55.

Vitale G, Salvioli S, Franceschi C. (2013). Oxidative stress and aging endocrine system. Nat Rev Endocrin 9(4): 228-40.

Vu BG, Stach CS, Kulhankova K, Salgado-Pabon W, Klingelhutz AJ, Schlievert PM. (2015). Chronic superantigen exposure induces systemic infl ammation, elevated bloodstream endotoxin, and abnormal glucose tolerance in rabbits: possible role in diabetes. Mbio 6(2): e02554.

Wallace RB, Salive ME. (2013). The dimentions of multiple chronic conditions: where do we go from here? A commentary on the special collection of preventing chronic disease. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prev Chronic Dis 10: 130104.

Wang Y, Beydoun MA. (2007). The obesity epidemic in the United States - gender, age, socioeconomic, racial/ethnic, and geographical characteristics: A systemic review and meta-regression analysis. Epidemiologic Rev 29(1): 6-28.

Wang CH, Chang RW, Ko YH, Tsai PR, Wang SS, Chen YS et al., (2014). Prevention of arterial stiff ening by using low-dose atorvastatin in diabetes is associated with decreased malondialdehyde. PLoS One 9(3): e90471.

Wang J, Luo X, Xu B, Wei J, Zhang Z, Zhu H. (2011). Elevated oxidative damage in kitchen workers in Chinese restaurants. J Occup Health 53: 327-33.

Watkins DJ, Ferguson KK, Anzolota Del Toro LV, Alshawabkeh AN, Cordero JF, Meeker JD. (2015). Associations between urinary phenol and paraben concentrations and markers of oxidative stress and infl ammation among pregnant women in Puerto Rico. Int J Hygiene Environ Health 2: 212-19.

Webb C, Twedt O. (2008). Oxidative stress and liver disease. Vet Clin North Am Anim Pract 38(1): 125-35.

Williams DL. (2008). Oxidative stress and the eye. Vet Clin North Am Anim Pract 38(1): 179-92.

Xu GJ, Kula T, Xu Q, Li MZ, Vernon SD. Ndung’n T et al., (2015). Comprehensive serological profi ling of human populations using a synthetic human virome. Science 348: aaa0698.

Yang RL, Shi YH, Hao G, Li W, Le GW. (2008). Increasing oxidative stress with progressive hyperlipidemia in human: relation between malondialdehyde and atherogeni index. J Clin Biochem Nutr 43: 154-58.

Yang YJ, Hong YC, Oh SY, Ha EH. (2009). Bisphenol A exposure is associated with oxidative stress and infl ammation in postmenopausal women. Environ Res 109(6): 797-801.

Yesilbursa D, Serdar Z, Serdar A, Sarac M, Coskun S, Jale C. (2005). Lipid peroxides in obese patients and eff ects of weight loss with orlistat on lipid peroxides levels. Int J Obesity 29: 142-45.

Yoshida Y, Umeno A, Shichiri M. (2013). Lipid peroxidation biomarkers for evaluating oxidative stress and assessing antioxidant capacity in vivo. J Clin Biochem Nutr 52(1): 9-16.

Yu GW, Laseter J, Mylander C. (2011). Persistent organic pollutants in serum and several diff erent fat compartments in humans. J Environ Public Health 2011: 417980.

Zaki MH, Akuta T, Akaike T. (2005). Nitric oxide-induced nitrative stress involved in microbial pathogenesis. J Pharmacol Sci 98: 117-29.

Zeliger HI. (2003).Toxic eff ects of chemical mixtures. Arch Environ Health 58(1): 23-29.

Zeliger HI. (2004). Unexplained cancer clusters: common threads. Arch Environ Health 59(4): 172-76.

Zeliger HI. (2011). Human toxicology of chemical mixtures, 2nd ed. Elsevier, London.

Zeliger HI, Pan Y, Rea WJ. (2012). Predicting co-morbidities in chemically sensitive individuals from exhaled breath analysis. Interdiscip Toxicol 5(3): 123-26.

Zeliger HI. (2012a). Statin use and risk of diabetes. Arch Int Med 171(11): 896-97.

Zeliger HI. (2013). Lipophilic chemical exposure as a cause of type 2 diabetes. Rev Environ Health 28(1): 9-20.

Zeliger HI. (2013a). Lipophilic chemical exposure as a cause of cardiovascular disease. Interdiscip Toxicol 6(2): 55-62.

Zeliger HI. (2013b). Exposure to lipophilic chemicals as a cause of neurological impairments, neurodevelopmental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Interdiscip Toxicol 6(3): 103-110.

Zeliger HI. (2014). Co-morbidities of environmental diseases: a common cause. Interdiscip Toxicol 7(3): 117-122.

Zeliger HI, Lipinski B. (2015). Physiochemical basis of human degenerative disease. Interdiscip Toxicol 8(1): 15-21.

Zeliger HI, Possidente B, Drake AG. (2015a). Co-morbidity of multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS): which comes fi rst. Pub Health Prevent Med 1(3): 108-11.

Zhu QX, Shen T, Ding R, Liang ZZ, Zhang XJ. (2005). Cytotoxicity of trichlorethylene and perchloroethylene on normal human epidermal keratinocytes and protective role of vitamin E. Toxicology 209(1): 55-67.

Interdisciplinary Toxicology

The Journal of Institute of Experimental Pharmacology of Slovak Academy of Sciences

Journal Information


CiteScore 2018: 1.78

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.274
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.671

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 308 222 9
PDF Downloads 150 114 7