Antidotal activity of Averrhoa carambola (Star fruit) on fluoride induced toxicity in rats

Open access


Consumption of fluoride leads to several physiological disturbances in carbohydrate, lipid and antioxidant metabolisms. Averrhoa carambola L. fruit (Star fruit) is a commonly consumed fruit in tropical countries and is an ingredient in folklore medicines. As the fruits have high polyphenolic and antioxidant contents, the present study was undertaken to investigate the potential of star fruit as a dietary supplement in attenuating the fluoride induced hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia and oxidative stress in laboratory rats. A four-week exposure to fluoride caused sustained hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress and, when the diet was supplemented with star fruit powder, carbohydrate, lipid and antioxidant profiles were restored significantly. It is surmised that the antihyperglycemic, antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidant activities of star fruit in fluoride exposed rats could be due to the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, saponins, phytosterols, ascorbic acid and fibers in the fruit, which are all well known regulators of carbohydrate, lipid and antioxidant metabolisms. These findings suggest that star fruit can be used as a dietary supplement in fluoride endemic regions to contain fluoride induced hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress

Aebi H. (1974). Catalase, Second Edition, in Methods of Enzymatic Analysis, Vol 2 (Bergmeyer ed) pp. 673-674, Academic Press, New York.

Arjmandi BH, Ahn J, Nathani S, Reeves RD. (1992). Dietary soluble fi ber and cholesterol aff ect serum cholesterol concentration, hepatic portal venous short-chain fatty acid concentrations and fecal sterol excretion in rats. J Nutr 122: 246-253.

Baginsky ES, Foa PP, Zad B. (1974). Glucose-6-phosphatase. In Methods of Enzymatic Analysis, Bergmeyer HU (ed.). Academic Press: New York, pp. 788-792.

Barbier O, Arreola-Mendoza L, Razo LMD. (2010). Molecular mechanisms of fl uoride toxicity. Chem-Biol Interact 188: 319-333.

Benzie IFF, Strain JJ. (1996). The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of antioxidant power: The FRAP assay. Ann Biochem 239: 70-76.

Brandstrup N, Kirk JE, Bruni C. (1957). The hexokinase and phosphoglucoisomerase activities of aortic and pulmonary artery tissue in individuals of various ages. J Gerontol 12: 166-171.

Chau CF, Chen CH, Lin CY. (2004a). Insoluble fi ber-rich fractions derived from Averrhoa carambola: hypoglycemic eff ects determined by in vitro methods. LWT Food Sci Technol 37: 331-335.

Chau CF, Chen CH, Lin CY. (2004b). Eff ects of a novel pomace fi ber on lipid and cholesterol metabolism in the hamster. Nutr Res 24: 337-345.

Chidambaram S, Ramanathan AL, Vasudevan S. (2003). Fluoride removal studies in water using natural materials. Water SA 29: 339-343.

Chlubek D, Grucka-Mamczar E, Birkner E, Polaniak R, Stawiarska-Pieta B, Duliban H. (2003). Activity of pancreatic antioxidative enzymes and malondialdehyde concentrations in rats with hyperglycemia caused by fl uoride intoxication. J Trace Elem Med Biol 17: 57-60.

Ebrahimzadeh H, Niknam V. (1998). A revised spectrophotometric method for determination of triterpenoid saponins. Indian Drugs 35: 379-381.

Flohe L, Gunzler WA. (1984). Assay of glutathione peroxidase. Methods Enzymol 105: 114-121.

Folch J, Lees MS, Stanley GH. (1957). A simple method for the isolation and purifi cation of total lipids from animal tissues. J Biol Chem 226: 497-509.

Francis G, Kerem Z, Makkar HPS, Becker K. (2002). The biological action of saponins in animal systems: a review. Br J Nutr 88: 587-605.

Friedewald WT, Levy RT, Fredrickson DS. (1972). Estimation of the concentration of LDL in plasma without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem 18: 499-502.

Frings CS, Fendley TW, Dunn RR, Queen CA. (1972). Improved determination of total serum lipid by sulphovanillin reaction. Clin Chem 8: 673-674.

Garcia-Montalvo EA, Reyes-Perez H, Del-Razo LM. (2009). Fluoride exposure impairs glucose tolerance via decreased insulin expression and oxidative stress. Toxicology. 263: 75-83.

Goad LJ, Akihisa T. (1997). Analysis of Sterols, Blackie Academic and Professional, 1st edition, London, pp. 423-425.

Grucka-Mamczar E, Birkner E, Kasperczyk S, Kasperczyk A, Chlubek D, Samujlo D, Ceglowska A. (2004). Lipid balance in rats with fl uoride induced hyperglycemia. Fluoride 37: 195-200.

Grucka-Mamczar E, Birkner E, Zalejska-Fiolka J, Machoy Z, Kasperczyk S, Blaszczyk I. (2007). Infl uence of extended exposure to sodium fl uoride and caff eine on the activity of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes in rat blood serum and liver. Fluoride 40: 62-66.

Hassan HA, Yousef MI. (2009). Mitigating eff ects of antioxidant properties of black berry juice on sodium fl uoride induced hepato-toxicity and oxidative stress in rats. Food Chem Toxicol 47: 2332-2337.

Hidaka M, Fujita K, Ogikubo T, Yamasaki K, Iwakiri T, Okumura M, Kodama H, Arimori K. (2004). Potent inhibition by star fruit of human cytochrome P4503A (CYP3A) activity. Drug Metab Dispos 32: 581-583.

Hidaka M, Okumura M, Ogikubo T, Kai H, Fujita K, Iwakiri T, Yamasaki K, Setoguchi N, Matsunga N, Arimari K. (2006). Transient inhibition of CYP3A in rats by star fruit juice. Drug Metab Dispos 34: 343-345.

Jagtap S, Yenkie MK, Labhsetwar N, Rayalu S. (2012). Fluoride in drinking water and defl uoridation of water. Chem Rev 112: 2454-2466.

Jamode AV, Sapkal VS, Jamode VS. (2004). Defl uoridation of water using inexpensive adsorbents. J Ind Inst Sci 84: 163-171.

Jollow DJ, Mitchell JR, Zampaglione N, Gillette JR. (1974). Bromobenzeneinduced liver necrosis. Protective role of glutathione and evidence for 3, 4-bromobenzene oxide as the hepatotoxic metabolite. Pharmacology 11: 151-169.

Kaiek HD, Stellaard F, Kruis W, Paumgartner G. (1984). Detection of increased bile acid content in simple stool samples. Clin Chim Acta 140: 85-90.

Kakkar P, Das B, Viswanathan PN. (1984). A modifi ed spectro-photometric assay of superoxide dismutase. Ind J Biochem Biophys 21: 130-132.

Kritchevsky D, Chen SC. (2005). Phytosterols-health benefi ts and potential concerns: a review. Nutr Res 25: 413-428.

Leong LP, Shui G. (2002). An investigation of the antioxidant capacity of fruits in Singapore markets. Food Chem 76: 69-75.

Manna P, Sinha M, Sil PC. (2007). A 43 kD protein isolated from the herb Cajanus indicus L attenuates sodium fl uoride induced hepatic and renal disorders in vivo. J Biochem Mol Biol 40: 382-395.

Meydani M, Hasan ST, (2010). Dietary polyphenols and obesity. Nutrients 2: 737-751.

Morton JF. (1987). Fruits of Warm Climates. Miami. pp. 125-128.

Moundras C, Behr SR, Remesy C, Demigne C. (1997). Fecal losses of sterols and bile acids induced by feeding rats guar gum are due to greater pool size and liver bile acid secretion. J Nutr 127: 1068-1076.

Murugan M, Subramanian E. (2002). Application of Aloe vera (Indian Aloe) a plant material for defl uoridation. Ind J Environ Protect 22: 1034-1039.

Murugan M, Subramanian E. (2006). Studies on defl uoridation of water by tamarind seed, an unconventional biosorbent. J Water Health 4: 453-461.

Nabavi SF, Moghaddam AH, Eslami S, Nabavi SM. (2012a). Protective eff ects of curcumin against sodium fl uoride-induced toxicity in rat kidneys. Biol Trace Elem Res 145: 369-374.

Nabavi SF, Nabavi SM, Abolhasani F, Moghaddam AH, Eslami S. (2012b). Cytoprotective eff ects of curcumin on sodium fl uoride-induced intoxication in rat erythrocytes. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 88: 486-490.

Nabavi SM, Nabavi SF, Eslami S, Moghaddam AH. (2012c). In vivo protective eff ects of quercetin against sodium fl uoride-induced oxidative stress in the hepatic tissue. Food Chem 132: 931-935.

Oguntibeju OO. (2008). The biochemical, physiological and therapeutic roles of ascorbic acid. Afr J Biotechnol 7: 4700-4705.

Ohkawa H, Ohishi N, Yagi K. (1979). Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Ann Biochem 95: 351-358.

Ranjan R, Swarup D, Patra RC, Chandar V (2009). Tamarindus indica L. and Moringa oleifera M. extract administration ameliorates fl uoride toxicity in rabbits. Ind J Exp Biol 47: 900-905.

Rao AV, Ramakrishnan S. (1975). Indirect assessment of hydroxymethylglutaryl- Co-A reductase (NADPH) activity in liver tissue. Clin Chem 21: 1523-1525.

Schaff ert, RR, Kingsley GR. (1955). A rapid, simple method for the determination of reduced, dehydro-, and total ascorbic acid in biological material. J Biol Chem 212: 59-68.

Seifter S, Dayton S, Novic B, Muntwyler E. (1950). Estimation of glycogen with anthrone reagent. Arch Biochem 25: 191-200.

Shui GH, Leong LP. (2004). Analysis of polyphenolic antioxidants in star fruit using liquid chromatography and mass spectrophotometry. J Chromatogr A 1022: 67-75.

Sinha M, Manna P, Sil PC. (2007). Aqueous extract of the bark of Terminalia arjuna plays a protective role against sodium-fl uoride induced hepatic and renal oxidative stress. J Nat Med 61: 251-260.

Snell FD, Snell CT. (1953). Colorimetric Methods of analysis, Vol 4, D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., New York, pp. 371-377.

Strunecka A, Patocka J, Blaylock RL, Chinoy NJ. (2007). Fluoride interactions: from molecules to disease. Curr Sig Transd T 2: 190-213.

Susheela AK. (2007). A Treatise on Fluorosis. 3rd ed. Fluorosis Research and Rural Development Foundation, New Delhi.

Thimmaiah SK. (1999). Standard Methods of Biochemical Analysis, Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi, India, pp. 264 & 293-298.

Tiwari KP, Masood M, Minocha PK. (1979). Chemical constituents of Gmelina phillipinensis, Adenocalymna nitida, Allamanda cathartica, Averrhoa carambola and Maba buxifolia. J Ind Chem Soc 56: 944.

Yadav UC, Moorthy K, Baquer NZ. (2005). Combined treatment of sodium orthovanadate and Momordica charatia fruit extract prevents alterations in lipid profi le and lipogenic enzymes in alloxan diabetic rats. Mol Cell Biochem 268: 111-120.

Yao LH, Jiang YM, Shi J, Tomas-Barberan FA, Datta N, Singanusong R, Chen SS. (2004). Flavonoids in food and their health benefi ts. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 59: 113-122.

Zunino ZS, David HS, Stephensen CB. (2007). Diets rich in polyphenols and vitamin A inhibit the development of type I autoimmune diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice. J Nutr 137: 1216-1221.

Interdisciplinary Toxicology

The Journal of Institute of Experimental Pharmacology of Slovak Academy of Sciences

Journal Information

CiteScore 2017: 2.36

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.580
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 1.134

Cited By


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 185 184 16
PDF Downloads 74 73 7