Testicular membrane lipid damage by complex mixture of leachate from municipal battery recycling site as indication of idiopathic male infertility in rat

Open access


Leachate from a municipal battery recycling site is a potent source of mixed-metal released into the environment. The present study investigated the degree at which mixed-metal exposure to the municipal auto-battery leachate (MABL) and to the Elewi Odo municipal auto-battery recycling site leachate (EOMABRL) affected the lipid membrane of the testes in in vitro experiment. The results showed elevated level of mixed-metals over the permissible levels in drinking water, as recommended by regulatory authorities. In the leachate samples, the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), a biomarker of lipid damage, was significantly (p<0.05) increased in rat testes in a dose-dependent manner. MDA induced by the municipal auto-battery leachate (MABL) was significantly (p<0.05) higher than the leachate from Elewi Odo municipal auto-battery recycling site (EOMABRL). The testicular lipid membrane capacity was compromised following treatment with leachate from the municipal battery recycling site, implicating mixed-metal exposure as the causative agent of testicular damage and male infertility.

Akintunde JK, Oboh G. (2012). In vitro oxidative damage induced in livers, hearts and kidneys of rats treated with leachate from battery recycling site: Evidence for environmental contamination and tissue damage. J Clin Exp Pathol 2: 129.

Akintunde JK, Oboh G. (2013). Municipal auto-battery recycling-site leachate activates key enzymes linked to non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and hypertension. J Diabetes Metab 4: 235.

Alverez JG, Touchstone JC, Blasco L, Storey BT. (1987). Spontaneous lipid peroxidation and production of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide in human spermatozoa: superoxide dismutase as major enzyme protectant against oxygen toxicity. J Androl 8: 338-348.

American society for testing material ASTM. (1992). Standard Test Method for Laboratory compaction characteristics of soil using standard eff ort (12,400ft-Ibf/ft3 (600KN-m/m3), Annual book of ASTM standards, vol.04.08, D698-91.

AOAC. (1990). Offi cial methods of analysis, 15th edn Association of offi cial Analytical chemists, Washington, DC

Bartolozzi M. (1990). The recovery of metals from spent alkaline-manganese batteries: a review of patent literature. Resour Conserv Recy 4: 233-240.

Beckman JS, Beckman TNV, Chen J, Marshall PA, Freem an BA. (1990). Apparent hydroxyl radical production by peroxynitrite: Implications for endothelial injury from nitric oxide and superoxide. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87: 1620-162.

D’Souza HP, Prabhu RH. (2006). In vitro inhibition of lipid peroxidation in fi sh by turmeric (Curcuma longa). Ind J Clin Biochem 21: 138-141.

Dandekar SP, Nadkarni GD, Kulkarni VS, Punekar S (2002). Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in male infertility. J Postgrad Med 48(3): 186-189; discussion 189-190.

De Souza CCBM, Oliveira DC, Tenorio JAS. (2001). Characterization of used alkaline batteries powder and analysis of zinc recovery by acid leaching. J. Power Sources 103: 120-126.

Farombi EO, Adelowo OA, Ajimoko YR. (2007). Biomarkers of oxidative stress and heavy metal levels as indicator of environmental pollution in Africal cat fi sh (Clarias gariepinus) from Nigerian Ogun river. Int J Environ Res Public Health 4: 158-165.

Farombi EO, Akintunde JK, Nsute N, Adedara IA, Arojojoye O. (2011). Municipal landfi ll leachate induces hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats. Toxicol Ind Health 28(6): 532-541.

Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA). (1991). National environmental protection (effl uence limitations) regulations as cited by Odiete (1999). In: Environmental Physiology of Animal Pollution. Lagos, Nigeria: Diversifi ed resources, 157-219.

Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA). (2001). Federal Ministry of Environment. National Guidelines and Standards for Water in Nigeria. Lagos, Nigeria: Diversifi ed resources, No. 792.

Ferrari B, Radetski CM, Veber AM, Ferard JF. (1999). Ecolotoxicological assessment of solid wastes: a combined liquid- and solid-phase testing approach usind a battery of bioassays and biomarkers. Environ Toxicol 18: 1195-202.

Godwin A, Prahbu RH. (2006). Lipid peroxidat ion of fi sh oils. Ind J Clin Biochem 21: 202-204.

Guanagke LI, Sangi N, Li GK. (2005). Chromosomal aberrations include in mouse bone marrow sells by municipal landfi ll leachate. Environ Toxicol Pharm 20: 219-224.

Hayes HM, Tarone RE, Casey HW, Huxsoll DL. (1990). Excess of seminomas observed in Vietnam service U.S. military working dogs. J Natl Cancer Inst 82: 1042-1046.

Holum JR. (1983). Elements of General and Biological chemistry, 6th Edition, John Wiley and Sons, N.Y.

Houk VS (1992). The genotoxicity of industrial wastes and effl uents. Mutation Resources 277: 91-138. http:www.oceansatlas.org/unatlas/uses/uneptextsph/wastesph/260.

Lamirande E, Gagnon C. (1992). Reactive oxygen species and human spermatozoa. I. Eff ects on the motility of intact spermatozoa and on sperm axoneme and II. Depletion of adenosine triphosphate plays an important role in the inhibition of sperm motility. J Androl 13: 379-386.

Li Y, Xi G. (2005). The dissolution mechanism of cathodic active materials of spent Zn-Mn batteries in HCl. J Hazardous Material B 127: 244-248.

Longe EO, Balogun MR. (2010). Groundwater quality assessment near a municipal landfi ll, Lagos, Nigeria. Res J Appl Sci Eng Tech 2(1): 39-44.

Longe EO, Enekwechi LO. (2007). Investigation on potential groundwater impacts and infl uence of local hydrogeology on natural attenuation of leachate at a municipal landfi ll. Int J Environ Sci Tech 4(1): 133-140.

Monroe M. (2001) Landfi ll Leachate Treatment: VSEP Off ers a Revolutionary Solution. Available at http://www.vsep.com/company/articles/2.html.

Muanya CA, Odukoya OA. (2008). Lipid peroxidation as index of activity in aphrodisiac herbs. J Plant Sci 3: 92-98.

Nduka JKC, Orisakwe OE, Nwangunna CK. (2007). Heavy Metals other than Lead in fl aked paints from buildings in Eastern Nigeria. Toxicol Ind Health 23: 525-528.

Nolan KR. (2003). Copper Toxicity Syndrome. J Orthomol Psych 12(4): 270-282.

Ogwuegbu MO, Ijioma MA. (2003). Eff ects of certain Heavy Metals on the population due to Mineral Exploitation. In: International Conference on Scientifi c and Environmental Issues In The Population, Environmental and Sustainable Development in Nigeria, University of Ado Ekiti State, Nigerian, pp 8-10.

Ogwuegbu MOC, Muhanga W. (2005). Investigation of Lead Concentration in the Blood of people in the Copperbelt Province of Zambia. J Environ 1: 66-75.

Ohkawa H, Ohishi N, Yagi K. (1979). Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal Biochem 95: 351-358.

Pant N, Srivastava SP. (2003). Testicular and spermatotoxic eff ect of quinaphos in rats. J Appl Toxicol 23: 271-274.

Perket CL, Krueger JR, Whitehurst DA. (1982). The use of extraction test for deciding waste disposal options. Trends Anal Chem 1(14): 342-347.

Raymond A, Costabile MD. (1998). Cancer and male factor infertility. Oncology 12: 557-568.

Rosselli M, Dubey RK, Imthurn B, Macas E, Keller PJ. (1995). Eff ects of nitric oxide on human spermatozoa: Evidence that nitric oxide decreases sperm motility and induces sperm toxicity. Hum Reprod 10: 1786-1790.

Siddique HR, Gupta SC, Dhawan A, Murthy RC, Saxena DK, Chowdhuri DK. (2005). Genotoxiicity of industrial solid waste leachates in Drossophila melanogaster. Environ Mol Mutagen 46(3): 189-197.

Sikka SC. (1996). Oxidative stress and role of antioxidants in normal and abnormal sperm function. Frontiers Biosci 1: 78-86.

Sikka SC, Rajasekaran M, Hellstrom WJG. (1995). Role of oxidative stress and antioxidants in maleinfertility. J Androl 16: 464-481.

Smith A, Edufunke LO, Adeyemi RO, Fagbure OA, Lawson AA. (2002). Toxicity test of water homogenate of Cissus populnea stem in mice and its eff ects on weights of some organs, serum gonadotropins, lipids and uric acid in male albino rats. Nig Quart J Hos Med 10: 224-227.

Sayilgan E, Kukrer T, Civelekoglu G, Ferella F, Akcil A, Veglio F, Kitis M. (2009). A review of technologies for the recovery of metals from spent alkaline and zinc-carbon batteries. Hydrometallurgy 97: 158-166.

Schrader SM. (2003). Man and the Workplace: Assessing His Reproductive Health. J Chem Health Saf 10: 11-16.

Seifter JL. (2007). Acid-base disorders. In: Cecil Medicine (Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds.), 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier.

Selvakumar E, Prahalathan C, Mythili Y, Varalakshmi P. (2004). Protective effect of DL-a-lipoic cid in cyclophosphamide induced oxidative injury in rat testis. Rep Toxicol 19: 163-167.

Thiele JJ, Freisleban HJ, Fuchs J, Ochsendorf FR. (1995). Ascorbic acid and urate in human seminal plasma: determination and interrelationships with chemiluminescence in washed semen. Hum Reprod 10: 110-115.

United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). (1996). Acid Digestion of Sediments Sludge and Soils. Methods-3050B, Washington, DC.

USEPA. (1995). Test Methods for evaluating solid waste.vol 1A: Laboratory manual physical/chemical methods, SW 846 3rd ed. U.S Gov. Print, Offi ce, Washington D.C.

World Health Organization. (1992). Laboratory manual for the examination of human semen and sperm-cervical mucus interaction. London: Cambridge University Press.

Zar JH. (1984). Biostatistical Analysis, Prentice-Hall, Inc. USA.

Interdisciplinary Toxicology

The Journal of Institute of Experimental Pharmacology of Slovak Academy of Sciences

Journal Information

CiteScore 2017: 2.36

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.580
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 1.134

Cited By


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 281 279 24
PDF Downloads 93 92 7