Biochemical markers for the assessment of aquatic environment contamination
The need for assessment of aquatic ecosystem contamination and of its impact on water dwelling organisms was developed in response to rising aquatic environmental pollution. In this field study, liver enzymes of phase I and phase II of xenobiotic transformation, namely cytochrome P450, ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, glutathione-S-transferase and tripeptide glutathione were used to assess the contamination of the aquatic environment at different rivers in the Czech Republic. The indicator species selected was the male chub (Leuciscus cephalus L.) and male brown trout (Salmo trutta fario). Chemical analyses included also the assessment of the most important inductors of previously mentioned biochemical markers. The major inductors of monitored biomarkers are industrial contaminants which belong to a large group of organic pollutants (PCB, PAH, PCDD/F, DDT, HCH, HCB and OCS), persistent in the environment. Four different groups of river basins were assessed: the River Tichá Orlice and its tributary the Kralický brook; important tributaries of the River Elbe (the rivers Orlice, Chrudimka, Cidlina, Jizera, Vltava, Ohře and Bílina); major rivers in the Czech Republic (the rivers Lužnice, Otava, Sázava, Berounka, Vltava, Labe, Ohře, Svratka, Dyje, Morava and Odra) and the River Vltava. The use of the biochemical markers together with chemical analyses seems to be an effective way to monitor the quality of aquatic environment.
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