The aim of the study was to describe the distribution of pea root mass in the soil, over a three-year period, under varying weather conditions and at different levels of phosphorus application, by means of evaluating and comparing parameters of a mathematical model characterising cumulative root mass distribution. A two-factor experiment was conducted in Prusy, near Krakow: the first factor was the level of phosphorus application (0-70-140 kg P2O5 ha−1) and the second was the cultivars (six cultivars were tested). Experimental data produced using the model indicated that the root distribution was strongly differentiated by water availability in the years of the study. This appeared in some cases to be a more important factor than phosphorus application rates. The estimated soil depth at which 50% of the root mass was accumulated differed significantly for the dry and the wet year. In the wet year, only very high phosphorus application rates contributed to an increase in root mass distribution. The estimation of root mass distribution from the presented data can be used to improve phosphorus application depending on the amount of precipitation.
Armstrong E.L., Pate J.S., and Tennant D., 1994. Patterns of water use and root growth in genotypes of contrasting morphology and growth habit. Funct. Plant Biol., 21, 517-532.
Bruckler L., Lafolie F., Doussan C., and Bussieres F., 2004. Modeling soil-root water transport with non-uniform water supply and heterogeneous root distribution. Plant Soil, 260, 205-224.
Canadell J., Jackson R.B., Ehleringer J.B., Mooney H.A., Sala O.E., and Schulze E.D., 1996. Maximum rooting depth of vegetation types at the global scale. Oecologia, 108, 583-595.
Candrakova E., Andrejcikova M., and Hanackova E., 2014. Yield formation of common peas and nutrient uptake. Res. J. Agric. Sci., 46, 109-116.
Cernay C., Ben-Ari T., Pelzer E., Meynard J.-M., and Makowski D., 2015. Estimating variability in grain legume yields across Europe and the Americas. Sci. Rep., 5, 11171.
Chloupek O., Dostal V., Streda T., Psota V., and Dvorackova O., 2010. Drought tolerance of barley varieties in relation to their root system size. Plant Breed., 129, 630-636.
Cseresnyés I., Rajkai K., and Takács T., 2016. Indirect monitoring of root activity in soybean cultivars under contrasting moisture regimes by measuring electrical capacitance. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 38(5), 109-121.
Cseresnyés I., Takács T., Fuzy A., and Rajkai K., 2014. Simultaneous monitoring of electrical capacitance and water uptake activity of plant root system. Int. Agrophys., 28, 537-541.
Cutforth H.W., Angadi S.V., McConkey B.G., Miller P.R., Ulrich D., Gulden R.,Volkmar K.M., Entz M.H., and Brandt S.A., 2013. Comparing rooting characteristics and soil water withdrawal patterns of wheat with alternative oilseed and pulse crops grown in the semiarid Canadian prairie. Can. J. Soil Sci., 93, 147-160.
Doussan C., Pierret A., Garrigues E., and Pages L., 2006. Water uptake by plant roots: II. Modelling of water transfer in the soil root-system with explicit account of flow within the root system: Comparison with experiments. Plant Soil, 183, 99-117.
Gallardo M., Eastham J., Gregory P.J., and Turner N.C., 1996. A comparison of plant hydraulic conductances in wheat and lupins. J. Exp. Bot., 47, 233-239.
Gan Y., Liu L., Cutforth H., Wang X., and Ford G., 2011. Vertical distribution profilesand temporal growth patterns of roots in selected oilseeds, pulses and spring wheat. Crop Pasture Sci., 62, 457-466.
Gan Y.T., Campbell C.A., Janzen H.H., Lemke R., Liu L.P., Basnyat P., and McDonald C.L., 2009. Root mass for oilseed and pulse crops: Growth and distribution in the soil profile. Can. J. Plant Sci., 89, 883-893.
Gao K., Chen F., Yuan L., Zhang F., and Mi G., 2015. A comprehensive analysis of root morphological changes and nitrogen allocation in maize in response to low nitrogen stress. Plant Cell Environ., 38, 740-50. doi: 10.1111/pce.12439
Gardner W.R., 1960. Dynamic aspects of water availability to plants. Soil Sci., 89, 63-73.
Gregory P.J., 1988. Root growth of chickpea, faba bean, lentil, and pea and effects of water and salt stresses. In: World Crops: Cool Season Food Legumes (Ed. R.J. Summerfield). Springer, Netherlands.
Gutierrez-Boem F. and Thomas G., 1999. Phosphorus nutrition and water deficits in field-grown soybeans. Plant Soil, 207, 87-96.
Fageria N.K. and Moreira A., 2011. The Role of Mineral Nutrition on Root Growth of Crop Plants. In: Advances in Agronomy (Ed. D.L. Sparks), Academic Press, Newark, USA.
Fan J., McConkey B., Wang H., and Janzen H., 2016. Root distribution by depth for temperate agricultural crops. Field Crop Res., 189, 68-74.
Heppell J., Talboys P., Payvandi S., Zygalakis K.C., Fliege J., Withers P., Jones D., and Roose T., 2015. How changing root system architecture can help tackle a reduction in soil phosphate (P) levels for better plant P acquisition. Plant Cell Envi., 38, 118-128.
Hinsinger P., Brauman A., Devau N., Jourdan C., Laclau J., Le Carde E., Jaillard B., and Plassard C., 2011. Acquisition of phosphorusand other poorly mobile nutrients by roots. Where do plant nutrition models fail? Plant Soil, 348, 29-61.
Ho M., Rosas J., Brown K., and Lynch J., 2005. Root architectural tradeoffs for water and phosphorus acquisition. Fun. Plant Biol., 32, 737-748.
Hoad S.P., Russell G., Lucas M.E., and Bingham I.J., 2001. The management of wheat, barley, and oat root systems. Adv. Agron., 74, 193-254.
Huck M.G., Peterson C.M., Hoogenboom G., and Busch C.D., 1986. Distribution of dry matter between shoots and roots of irrigated and nonirigated determinate soybeans. Agron. J., 78, 807-813.
Javaux M., Schroder T., Vanderborght J., and Vereecken H., 2008. Use of a three-dimentional detailed modeling approach for predicting root water uptake. Vadose Zone J., 7, 1079-1088.
Klimek-Kopyra A., Skowera B., Zając T., and Grygierzec B., 2016. Development and production response of edible and forage varieties of pea (Pisum sativum L.) to temporary soil drought under different levels of phosphorus application. Acta Agrobot., 69, 1663-1676.
Liu L., Gan Y., Bueckert R., and Van Rees K., 2011. Rooting systems of oilseed and pulse crops. II. vertical distribution patterns across the soil profile. Field Crop Res., 122, 248-255.
Moll R.H., Kamprath E.J., and Jackson W.A., 1982. Analysis and interpretation of factors which contribute to efficiency to nitrogen utilization. Agron. J., 74, 562-564.
Naumann A., Heine G., and Rauber R., 2010. Efficient discrimination of oat and pea roots by cluster analysis of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra. Field Crop Res., 119, 78-84.
Passioura J.B., 1994. The yield of crops in relation to drought. (Eds K.J. Boote, J.M. Bennett, T.R. Sinclair, G.M. Paulsen). Physiology and determination of crop yield. ASA, CSSA, SSSA, Madion, WI, USA.
Podleśny J. and Podleśna A., 2011. Effect of rainfall Mount and distribution on growth, development and Fields of determinate and indeterminate cultivars of blue lupine. Pol. J. Agr., 4, 16-22.
Purushothaman R., Krishnamurthy L., Upadhyaya H.D., Vadez V., and Varshney R., 2017. Genotypic variation in soil water use and root distribution and their implications for drought tolerance in chickpea. Fun. Plant Biol., 44, 235-252.
Schenk H.J. and Jackson R.B., 2002. The global biogeography of roots. Ecol. Monogr., 72, 311-328.
Taylor H.M. and Klepper B., 1978. The role of rooting characteristics in the supply of water to plants. Adv. Agon., 30, 99 128.
Thorup-Kristensen K., Cortasa M.S., and Loges R., 2009. Winter wheat roots grow twice as deep as spring wheat roots, is this important for N uptake and N leaching losses? Plant Soil, 322, 101-114.
Vrugt J.A., van Wijk M.T., Hopmans J.W., and Šimunek J., 2001. One-, two-, and three-dimensional root water uptake functions for transient modeling. Water Resour. Res., 37, 2457-2470.
Williams D.G. and Ehleringer J.R., 2000. Intra- and interspecific variation for summer precipitation use in pinyon-juniper woodlands. Ecological Monographs, 70, 517-537.
Williams J.D., McCool D.K., Reardon C.L., Douglas C.L., Albrecht S.L., and Rickman R.W., 2013. Root:shoot ratios and belowground biomass distribution for Pacific Northwest dry land crops. J. Soil Water Conserv., 68, 349-360.