Characterising root density of peach trees in a semi-arid Chernozem to increase plant density

Open access

Abstract

The available information on root system in fully mature peach orchards in semi-arid regions is insufficient. This paper presents a study on the root system density in an irrigated peach orchard from Dobrogea, Romania, using the trench technique. The old orchard has clean cultivation in inter-row and in-row. The objectives of the study were to: test the hypothesis that the roots of fully mature peach trees occupy the whole soil volume; find out if root repulsive effect of adjacent plants occurred for the rootstocks and soil conditions; find relationships between root system and soil properties and analyse soil state trend. Some soil physical properties were significantly deteriorated in inter-row versus in-row, mainly due to soil compaction induced by technological traffic. Density of total roots was higher in-row than inter-row, but the differences were not significant. Root density decreased more intensely with soil depth than with distance from tree trunks. Root density correlated with some soil properties. No repulsive effect of the roots of adjacent peach trees was noted. The decrease of root density with distance from trunk can be used in optimising tree arrangement. The conclusions could also be used in countries with similar growth conditions.

Basile B., Bryla D.R., Salsman M.L., Marsal J., Cirillo C., Johnson R.S., and DeJong T.M., 2007. Growth patterns and morphology of fine roots of size-controlling and invigorating peach rootstocks. Tree Physiology, 27, 231-241.

Black B.L., Drost D., Lindstrom T., Reeve J., Gunnell J.D., and Reighard G.L., 2010. A comparison of root distribution patterns among prunus rootstocks. J. Amer. Pomological Soc., 64(1), 52-62.

Böhm W. (Ed.), 1979. Methods of studying root systems. Springer Press, Berlin, Germany.

Ceausescu I., Negrila A., Isac I., and Lazar A., 1982. Fruit Growing (in Romanian). Publishing House Ceres, Bucharest, Romania.

Cociu V., 1993. The apricot. Editura Ceres (in Romanian). Publishing House Ceres, Bucharest, Romania.

Dragavtsev A.P., 1936. The root system of subtropical fruit plants growing in northern areas (in Russian). Trudy Sochinskoy op. stantsii subtr. i yuzhn. plodovykh kultur, 10, 1936.

Dumitru E., Enache R., Dumitru M., and Gus P., 1999. The remnant effects of some agricultural practices on the physical soil state. Publishing House Risoprint, Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

Ferrero A., Usowicz B., and Lipiec J., 2005. Effects of tractor traffic on spatial variability of soil strength and water content in grass covered and cultivated sloping vineyard. Soil Till. Res., 84, 127-138.

Florea N., Balaceanu V., Rauta C., and Canarache A., 1987. Methodology of elaboration of soil science studies. Partea I, II, III. (in Romanian). Publishing House of Agricultural and Technical Promotion. ICPA Bucuresti, Romania.

Glenn D.M. and Welke W.V., 1993. Root development patterns in field grown peachtrees. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 118(3), 362-365.

Gliński J., Lipiec J., and Stępniewski W., 2008. Plant roots and soil physical factors. Encyclopedia Soil Science, 571-578.

Indreias A., 1997. Pattern of the peach tree root system in Springrest cultivar grafted on six rootstocks (in Romanian). Scientific papers. Publishing House INFCON Constanta, Romania.

Kolesnikov V. (Ed.), 1971. The Root System of Fruit Plants. Mir Publishers Moscow, Russia.

Liang Y., Gao S.R., Bo C.P., Yang Y., Wang S.W., Pan C.D., and Chen G.A., 2011. Spatial distribution characteristics of absorbing roots of apricot trees in the intercropping systems. Xinjiang Agric. Sci., 48(5), 821-825.

Lipiec J., Nosalewicz A., and Pietrusiewicz J., 2011. Crop Responses to soil physical conditions. In Encyclopedia of Agrophysics (Eds J. Gliński, J. Horabik, and J. Lipiec), Springer Dordrecht-Heidelberg-London-New York.

Mata M., Girona J., Goldhamer D.A., Fereres E., and Cohen M., 1999. Water relations of lysimeter-grown peach trees are sensitive to deficit irrigation. California Agric., 53(4), 17-20.

Negrila A. (Ed.), 1971. Fruit Growing (in Romanian). Publishing House Didactic and Pedagogic, Bucharest, Romania.

Oskamp J. and Batjer L.P., 1932. Soils in relation to fruit growing in New York. II. Size, production and rooting habit of apple trees on different soil types in the Helton and Morton areas, Monroe County. Cornell Univ. Agr. Expt. Stan. Ithaca, New-York, Bul., 550, 45.

Parker M.L. and Meyer J.R., 1996. Peach tree vegetative and root growth respond to orchard floor management. Hortscience, 31(3), 330-333.

Ruiz-Sánchez M.C., Plana V., Ortuño M.F., Tapia L.M., and Abrisqueta J.M., 2005. Spatial root distribution of apricot trees in different soil tillage practices. Plant Soil, 272(1), 211-221.

Strabbioli G. and Manzo P., 1983. Investigations on root system development of four apricot rootstocks. Acta Horticulturae, ISHS, 121, 303-312.

SURFER 8 Program. Golden Software Inc., Colorado 80401-1866, USA.

Tworkoski T. and Scorza R., 2001. Root and shoot characteristics of peach trees with different growth habits. J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci., 126(6), 785-790.

Van Dijck S.J.E. and van Asch Th.W.J., 2002. Compaction of loamy soils due to tractor traffic in vineyards and orchards and its effect on infiltration in southern France. Soil Till. Res., 63, 141-153.

Williamson J.G., Coston D.C., and Cornell J.A., 1992. Root restriction affects shoot development of peach in a high-density orchard. J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci., 117(3), 362-367.

World Reference Base for Soil Resources, 2006. A framework for international classification, correlation and communication. 145 p. FAO of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.

International Agrophysics

The Journal of Institute of Agrophysics of Polish Academy of Sciences

Journal Information


IMPACT FACTOR 2017: 1.242
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1.267

CiteScore 2017: 1.38

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.435
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.849

Cited By

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 139 139 10
PDF Downloads 73 73 11