Cohesion, Fracture and Bond – Understanding the Data from the Vialit Cohesion Pendulum Test and Other Fracture Tests from an Analysis of Rheological Properties

Open access

ABSTRACT

The Vialit Cohesion Pendulum has been used for many years in Europe as a tool for assessing modified asphalt binders with a particular emphasis on chip seal/surfacing dressing applications. The cohesion measured in this device has been considered as an indicator of quality of the base asphalt binder and subsequent polymer formulation. This test demonstrates a transition between brittle and ductile failure of binder systems. When a test of this kind is compared to other binder tests, it is possible to deduce the impact that the high rate of loading in the Vialit Cohesion Pendulum test has on the test results. Data have been developed on a series of SHRP core asphalt binders and these are compared to master curves developed with the same binders. A discussion will follow on how the fracture of asphalt binder and mixture is both rate and temperature dependent and that this parameter always needs that consideration to truly evaluate the meaning of test data. A test of this nature, while founded partly on an empirical data base of use, can be better explained and understood with consideration of the speed of loading and temperature effects that allows the translation of fracture temperatures at one condition to those at another. The results from this type of evaluation offer better understanding of criteria such as fatigue, fracture and bond of asphalt binders and mixtures.

Anderson, D.A., Christensen, D.W., Bahia, H.U., Dongre, R., Sharma, M.G., Antle, C.E and Button, J., “Binder Characterization and Evaluation, Volume 3: Physical Characterization”, SHRP-A-369, Strategic Highway Research Program, National Research Council, Washington, DC 1994.

Baumgaertel, M and Winter, H.H., "Determination of discrete relaxation and retardation time spectra from dynamic mechanical data", Rheol Acta 28:511-519, 1989.

Baumgardner, G.L., “Rubber Modified Binders and Mixtures”, Presentation at the 56th New Jersey Asphalt Paving Conference, 5-6 March, 2013.

British Board of Agrément, “Colas Modified Bitumen Road Emulsions, Sufix 80S, Prinmuls Lite LMP90X, Premium 80 and Prinmuls MP90X Road Emulsions,” HAPAS - Highways Authorities’ Product Approval Certificate, Agrément Certificate 10/H162, September 2010.

Bouldin, M.G., Dongré, R.N., Rowe, G.M., Sharrock, M.J. and Anderson, D.A., "Predicting Thermal Cracking of Pavements from Binder Properties - Theoretical Basis and Field Validation", Proceedings, Journal of the Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists, Volume 69, 2000.

Christensen, D. W. and Anderson, D.A., “Chemical-Physical Property Relationships for Asphalt Cements and the Dispersed Polar Fluid Model,” Vol. 37, No. 3 & 4, Division of Fuel Chemistry, American Chemical Society, Preprints of Papers, 204th ACS National Meeting, Washington, D. C., pp. 1279-1291, August 1992

Comité Européen de Normalisation, “Bitumen and bituminous binders - Framework for specifying cationic bituminous emulsions”, EN 13808, 2005.

Comité Européen de Normalisation “Bitumen and bituminous binders - Determination of cohesion of bituminous binders with pendulum test”, EN 13588, 2008.

Comité Européen de Normalisation, “Bitumen and bituminous binders - Framework for specifying cut-back and fluxed bituminous binders” EN 15322, 2009.

Gordon, G.V. and Shaw, M.T., "Computer Programs for Rheologists", Hanser/Gadner Publ., 1994.

Heukelom, W, “Observations on the Rheology and Fracture of Bitumens and Asphalt Mixes”, Proceedings, Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists, Volume 35, 1966, pp. 358-399

Highways Agency, Transport Scotland, The National Assembly for Wales and The Department for Regional Development Northern Ireland “Determination of Cohesion of Bitumen and Bituminous Binders”, Manual of Contract Documents for Highway Works, Volume 1, Clause 957 - Specification for Highway Works, 2008.

Pérez-Jiménez, F., Valdés, G.A., Botella, R., Miró, R. and Martínez, A., “Approach to fatigue performance using Fénix test for asphalt mixtures”, Construction and Building Materials, Elsevier, No. 26, 2012, pp. 372-380.

Rayner, C. and Rowe, G.M, “Properties of Mastics Using Different Fillers with Both Unmodified and EVA-Modified Binders”, Proceedings, Eurasphalt & Eurobitume Congress, Vienna, April 2004.

Rowe, G.M. and Sharrock, M.J. “The Direct Tension Test and the Behavior of Asphalt Binders at Low and Intermediate Temperatures”, The 4th International symposium on Binder Rheology and Pavement Performance, Scottsdale, Arizona, September 22-23, 2003.

Rowe, G.M. and Sharrock, M.J., “Alternate shift factor relationship for describing the temperature dependency of the visco-elastic behavior of asphalt materials”, TRB Annual Meeting, Published in the Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2207, Asphalt Materials and Mixtures, Volume 1, Washington DC, 2011, pp. 125-135.

Scarsella, M. and Mastrofini, D., “Petroleum Heavy Ends Stability: Evolution of Residues: Macrostructure by Aging”, Energy & Fuels 1999, 13, 739-747.

Smith, T.L. “Dependence of the Ultimate Properties of a GR-S Rubber on Strain Rate and Temperature”, Journal of Polymer Science, Volume 32, 1958, pp. 99-113.

Surrey County Council, “A Review of Rhinophalt Preservative The preventative maintenance system by ASI Solutions” Surrey County Council Asset Planning Group, September 2011.

Total Bitumen, “Emulsis Footpath Polymer Modified Footway Surface Dressing Emulsion,” Technical Data Sheet, February 2007.

Van der Poel, C.J., “A General System Describing the Visco-Elastic Properties of Bitumens and its relation to routine test data,” Journal of Applied Chemistry, Volume 4, 1954, pp. 221-236.

Journal Information

Cited By

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 328 245 16
PDF Downloads 106 76 6