This study focuses on the progressive vs. non-progressive alternation to revisit the debate on the ENL-ESL-EFL continuum (i.e. whether native (ENL) and nonnative (ESL/EFL) Englishes are dichotomous types of English or form a gradient continuum). While progressive marking is traditionally studied independently of its unmarked counterpart, we examine (i) how the grammatical contexts of both constructions systematically affect speakers’ constructional choices in ENL (American, British), ESL (Indian, Nigerian and Singaporean) and EFL (Finnish, French and Polish learner Englishes) and (ii) what light speakers’ varying constructional choices bring to the continuum debate. Methodologically, we use a clustering technique to group together individual varieties of English (i.e. to identify similarities and differences between those varieties) based on linguistic contextual features such as AKTIONSART, ANIMACY, SEMANTIC DOMAIN (of aspect-bearing lexical verb), TENSE, MODALITY and VOICE to assess the validity of the ENL-ESL-EFL classification for our data. Then, we conduct a logistic regression analysis (based on lemmas observed in both progressive and non-progressive constructions) to explore how grammatical contexts influence speakers’ constructional choices differently across English types. While, overall, our cluster analysis supports the ENL-ESL-EFL classification as a useful theoretical framework to explore cross-variety variation, the regression shows that, when we start digging into the specific linguistic contexts of (non-)progressive constructions, this classification does not systematically transpire in the data in a uniform manner. Ultimately, by including more than one statistical technique into their exploration of the continuum, scholars could avoid potential methodological biases.
Aarts, Bas, Joanne Close, Geoffrey Leech and Sean Wallis (eds.). 2013. The verb phrase in English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Biewer, Carolin. 2011. Modal auxiliaries in second language varieties of English: A learner’s perspective. In J. Mukherjee and M. Hundt (eds.), 7–33.
Bongartz, Christiane M. and Sarah Buschfeld. 2011. English in Cyprus: Second language variety or learner English? In J. Mukherjee and M. Hundt (eds.), 35–54.
Brinton, Laurel J. 1988. The development of English aspectual systems: Aspectualizers and post-verbal particles. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Collins, Peter. 2008. The progressive aspect in World Englishes: A corpus-based study. Australian Journal of Linguistics 28 (2): 225–249.
Crawley, Michael J. 2007. The R book. Chichester: Wiley.
Deshors, Sandra C. 2014. A case for a unified treatment of EFL and ESL: A multifactorial approach. English World-Wide 35 (3): 277–305.
Deshors, Sandra. C. 2017. Zooming in on verbs in the progressive: A collostructional and correspondence analysis. Journal of English Linguistics 45 (3): 260–290.
Deshors, Sandra C., Sandra Götz and Samantha Laporte. 2016. Linguistic innovations in EFL and ESL: Rethinking the linguistic creativity of non-native English speakers. International Journal of Learner Corpus Research 2 (2): 131–150.
Divjak, Dagmar and Stefan Th. Gries. 2006. Ways of trying in Russian: Clustering behavioral profiles. Corpus Linguistics and Linguistic Theory 2 (1): 23–60.
Divjak, Dagmar S. and Stefan Th. Gries. 2009. Corpus-based cognitive semantics: A contrastive study of phrasal verbs in English and Russian. In K. Dziwirek and B. Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk (eds.). Studies in cognitive corpus linguistics, 273–296. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.
Dowty, David R. 1979. Word meaning and Montague grammar: The semantics of verbs and times in generative semantics and in Montague's PTQ. The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Du Bois, John W., Wallace L. Chafe, Charles Meyer, Sandra A. Thompson, Robert Englebretson and Nii Martey. 2000–2005. Santa Barbara Corpus of Spoken American English, Parts 1–4. Philadelphia: Linguistic Data Consortium.
Edwards, Alison. 2014. The progressive aspect in the Netherlands and the ESL/EFL continuum. World Englishes 33 (2): 173–194.
Edwards, Alison. 2016. English in the Netherlands: Functions, forms and attitudes. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Edwards, Alison and Samantha Laporte. 2015. Outer and Expanding Circle Englishes: The competing roles of norm orientation and proficiency levels. English World-Wide 36 (2): 135–169.
Gilquin, Gaëtanelle. 2015. At the interface of contact linguistics and second language acquisition research: New Englishes and Learner Englishes compared. English World-Wide 36 (1): 91–124.
Gilquin, Gaëtanelle, Sylvie De Cock and Sylviane Granger (eds.). 2010. The Louvain International Database of Spoken English Interlanguage: Handbook and CD-ROM. Louvain-la-Neuve: Presses universitaires de Louvain.
Gilquin, Gaëtanelle and Sylviane Granger. 2011. From EFL to ESL: Evidence from the International Corpus of Learner English. In J. Mukherjee and M. Hundt (eds.), 55–78.
Götz, Sandra and Marco Schilk. 2011. Formulaic sequences in spoken ENL, ESL and EFL: Focus on British English, Indian English and learner English of advanced German learners. In J. Mukherjee and M. Hundt (eds.), 79–100.
Granger, Sylviane, Estelle Dagneaux, Fanny Meunier and Magali Paquot (eds.). 2009. The International Corpus of Learner English. Version 2. Handbook and CD-Rom. Louvain-la-Neuve: Presses Universitaires de Louvain.
Greenbaum, Sydney. 1991. The development of the International Corpus of English. In K. Aijmer, B. Altenberg and J. Svartvik (eds.). English corpus linguistics: Studies in honour of Jan Svartvik, 83–91. London: Longman.
Gries, Stefan Th. 2009. Statistics for linguists with R: A practical introduction. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter.
Gries, Stefan Th. and Sandra C. Deshors. 2015. EFL and/vs. ESL? A multi-level regression modeling perspective on bridging the paradigm gap. International Journal of Learner Corpus Research 1 (1): 130–159.
Gut, Ulrike and Robert Fuchs. 2013. Progressive aspect in Nigerian English. Journal of English Linguistics 41 (3): 243–267.
Harrell, Frank E. 2001. Regression modeling strategies: With applications to linear models, logistic regression, and survival analysis. New York: Springer.
Hundt, Marianne. 2004. Animacy, agency and the spread of the progressive in eighteenth- and nineteenth-century English. English Language and Linguistics 8 (1): 47–69.
Hundt, Marianne and Joybrato Mukherjee. 2011. Introduction: Bridging a paradigm gap. In J. Mukherjee and M. Hundt (eds.), 1–5.
Hundt, Marianne and Katrin Vogel. 2011. Overuse of the progressive in ESL and learner Englishes: Fact or fiction? In J. Mukherjee and M. Hundt (eds.), 145–165.
Kachru, Braj B. 1985. Standards, codification and sociolinguistic realism: The English language in the outer circle. In R. Quirk and H.G. Widdowson (eds.). English in the world. Teaching and learning the language and literature, 11–30. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kranich, Svenja. 2010. The progressive in Modern English: A corpus-based study of grammaticalization and related changes. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
Laitinen, Mikko. (Forthcoming). Placing ELF among the varieties of English: Some observation from typological profiling. In S. C. Deshors (ed.). Modeling World Englishes: Assessing the interplay of emancipation and globalization of ESL varieties. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Laitinen, Mikko and Magnus Levin. 2016. On the globalization of English: Observations of subjective progressives in present-day Englishes. In E. Seoane and C. Suárez-Gómez (eds.). World Englishes: New theoretical and methodological considerations, 229–252. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Leech, Geoffrey, Marianne Hundt, Christian Mair and Nicholas Smith. 2009. Change in contemporary English: A grammatical study. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mair, Christian. 2013. The World System of Englishes: Accounting for the transnational importance of mobile and mediated vernaculars. English World-Wide 34(3): 253–278.
Meriläinen, Lea and Heli Paulasto. 2017. Embedded inversion as an angloversal: Evidence from Inner, Outer and Expanding Circle Englishes. In M. Filppula, J. Klemola and D. Sharma (eds.). The Oxford handbook of World Englishes, 676–696. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Meriläinen, Lea, Heli Paulasto and Paula Rautionaho. 2017. Extended uses of the progressive form in Inner, Outer and Expanding Circle Englishes. In M. Filppula, J. Klemola, A. Mauranen and S. Vetchinnikova (eds.). Changing English: Global and local perspectives, 191–216. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.
Mesthrie, Rajend and Rakesh M. Bhatt. 2008. World Englishes: The study of new linguistic varieties. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mukherjee, Joybrato and Marianne Hundt (eds.). 2011. Exploring second-language varieties of English and learner Englishes: Bridging the paradigm gap. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Rautionaho, Paula. 2014. Variation in the progressive: A corpus-based study into World Englishes. Tampere: Tampere University Press.
Rautionaho, Paula and Sandra C. Deshors. (Forthcoming.) Progressive or not progressive?: Modeling the constructional choices of EFL and ESL writers. To appear in International Journal of Learner Corpus Research, a special issue “Tense and aspect in learner language: Issues and advances in the use of language corpora”.
Salles Bernal, Soluna. 2015. Synchronic analysis of the progressive aspect in three varieties of Asian Englishes. Miscelánea: A Journal of English and American Studies 51: 87–107.
Schneider, Edgar. 2007. Postcolonial English: Varieties around the world. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Schneider, Gerold and Marianne Hundt. 2012. “Off with their heads”: Profiling TAM in ICE corpora. In M. Hundt and U. Gut (eds.). Mapping unity and diversity World-Wide: Corpus-based studies of New Englishes, 1–34. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Sharma, Devyani. 2009. Typological diversity in New Englishes. English World-Wide 30 (2): 170–195.
Smitterberg, Erik. 2005. The progressive in 19th-century English: A process of integration. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
Strang, Barbara M.H. 1982. Some aspects of the history of the be + ing construction. In J. Anderson (ed.). Language form and linguistic variation: Papers dedicated to Angus McIntosh, 427–474. Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Szmrecsanyi, Benedikt and Bernd Kortmann. 2011. Typological profiling: Learner Englishes versus indigenized L2 varieties of English. In J. Mukherjee and M. Hundt (eds.), 167–187.
Van Rooy, Bertus. 2006. The extension of the progressive aspect in Black South African English. World Englishes 25 (1): 37–64.
Van Rooy, Bertus. 2010. Social and linguistic perspectives on variability in World Englishes. World Englishes 29 (1): 3–20.
Van Rooy, Bertus. 2011. A principled distinction between error and conventionalized innovation in African Englishes. In J. Mukherjee and M. Hundt (eds.), 189–207.
Van Rooy, Bertus 2014. Progressive aspect and stative verbs in Outer Circle varieties. World Englishes 33 (2): 157–172.
Van Rooy, Bertus and Caroline Piotrowska. 2015. The development of an extended time period meaning of the progressive in Black South African English. In P. Collins (ed.). Grammatical change in English world-wide, 465–483. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Vendler, Zeno. 1957. Verbs and times. The Philosophical Review 66(2): 143–160.
Williams, Jessica. 1987. Non-native varieties of English: A special case of language acquisition. English World-Wide 8(2): 161–199.