Different types of bhastrika pranayama: repeated measures trials with different treatments to study the trend of the effects on static balance ability

Open access


Purpose. The objective of the study was to find out the trend of the effects of 4 varieties of bhastrika pranayama on static balance ability. Methods. The total of 75 male students were selected as subjects. The age of the subjects ranged 17-25 years. The participants were divided randomly into 5 groups, 15 students each. They practiced 4 varieties of bhastrika pranayama. Results. Quadratic components for overall trends were found significant in static balance ability. A significant difference was observed between linear components of the trends for the treatment groups and the control group in static balance ability. Also, a significant difference was noted between quadratic components of the trends for the treatment groups and the control group as for static balance ability. Conclusions. There was a significant difference among the adjusted post-test means of 4 experimental groups and the control group in static balance ability.

1. Bhavanani AB, Madanmohan M, Sanjay Z. Immediate effect of chandra nadi pranayama (left unilateral forced nostril breathing) on cardiovascular parameters in hypertensive patients. Int J Yoga. 2012;5(2):108-111; doi:

2. McKay JAA, McCulloch CL, Querido JS, Foster GE, Koehle MS, Sheel AW. The effect of consistent practice of yogic breathing exercises on the human cardiorespiratory system. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2016;233:41-51; doi:

3. Khazaei AA, Yousefi B, Kahrizi N. The effect of selected Hatha Yoga and pranayama exercise on motor and cognitive function in elderly women. Int J Sport Studies. 2014;4(5):547-553.

4. Schmid AA, Puymbroeck M, Koceja DM. Effect of a 12- week yoga intervention on fear of falling and balance in older adults: a pilot study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2010;91(4):576-583; doi:

5. Telles S, Joseph C, Venkatesh S, Desiraju T. Alterations of auditory middle latency evoked potentials during yogic consciously regulated breathing and attentive state of mind. Int J Psychophysiol. 1993;14(3):189-198; doi:

6. Purohit SP, Pradhan B, Nagendra HR. Effect of yoga on EUROFIT physical fitness parameters on adolescents dwelling in an orphan home: a randomized control study. Vulner Child Youth Stud. 2016;11(1):33-46; doi:

7. Ross A, Thomas S. The health benefits of yoga and exercise: a review of comparison studies. J Altern Complement Med. 2010;16(1):3-12; doi:

8. Sengupta P. Health impacts of yoga and pranayama: a state-of-the-art review. Int J Prev Med. 2012;3(7):444-458.

9. Kansal DK. Test and measurement in sports and physical education. New Delhi: DVS Publications; 1996.

10. Kuvalayananda S. Pranayama. Lonavla: Kaivalyadhama; 1983.

11. Gere MM, Gharete ML, Rajapurkar MV. Effect of ten minutes of Kapalbhati on some physiological functions. Yoga Mimansa. 1989;28:1-11.

12. Choudhary R, Kulmatycki L, Meena TR. Trend of the effects of four varieties of yoga bhastrika pranayama on physical efficiency index. Arch Budo. 2012;8(2):117-124

13. Shashikala GV, Shashidhar PK, Baljoshi VS, Herur A, Ankad RB, Chinagudi S. Effect of mukh bhastrika (a type of pranayama) on the sensory: motor performance. J Clin Diagn Res. 2011;5(5):1034-1037.

14. Bhavanani AB, Ramanathan M, Kt H. Immediate effect of mukha bhastrika (a bellows type pranayama) on reaction time in mentally challenged adolescents. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2012;56(2):174-180.

15. Brown KD, Koziol JA, Lotz M. A yoga-based exercise program to reduce the risk of falls in seniors: a pilot and feasibility study. J Altern Complement Med. 2008;14(5): 454-457; doi:

16. Madanmohan M, Rai VC, Balavittal V, Thomcre DP, Gitanonda S. Cardiorespiratory changes during Savitri pranayama and Shavasana. Yoga Rev. 1983;3(1):25-34.

17. Madanmohan M, Thombre DP, Balakumar B, Nambinarayanan TK, Thakur S, Krishnamurthy N, et al. Effect of yoga training on reaction time, respiratory endurance and muscle strength. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1992; 36(4):229-233.

18. Pal GK, Velkumary S, Madanmohan M. Effect of shortterm practice of breathing exercises on autonomic functions in normal human volunteers. Indian J Med Res. 2004;120(2):115-121.

19. Telles S, Reddy SK, Nagendra HR. Oxygen consumption and respiration following two yoga relaxation techniques. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2000;25(4):221-227; doi:

20. Udupa K, Madanmohan, Bhavanani AB, Vijayalakshmi P, Krishnamurthy N. Effect of pranayam training on cardiac function in normal young volunteers. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2003;47(1):27-33.

21. Sinha AN, Deepak D, Gusain VS. Assessment of the effects of pranayama/alternate nostril breathing on the parasympathetic nervous system in young adults. J Clin Diagn Res. 2013;7(5):821-823; doi:

22. Santanella DF, Devesa CR, Rojo MR, Amato MB, Drager LF, Casali KR, et al. Yoga respiratory training improves respiratory function and cardiac sympathovagal balance in elderly subjects: a randomised controlled trial. BMJ Open. 2011;1(1):e000085; doi:

23. Joshi LN, Joshi VD, Gokhale LV. Effect of short term ‘Pranayam’ practice on breathing rate and ventilatory functions of lung. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1992;36(2): 105-108.

24. Ghiya S, Lee CM. Influence of alternate nostril breathing on heart rate variability in non-practitioners of yogic breathing. Int J Yoga. 2012;5(1):66-69; doi:

25. Birkel DA, Edgren L. Hatha yoga: improved vital capacity of college students. Altern Ther Health Med. 2000;6(6): 55-63.

26. Pramanik T, Sharma HO, Mishra S, Mishra A, Prajapati R, Singh S. Immediate effect of slow pace bhastrika pranayama on blood pressure and heart rate. J Altern Complement Med. 2009;15(3):293-295; doi:

27. Ray US, Mukhopadhyaya S, Purkayastha SS, Asnani V, Tomer OS, Prashad R, et al. Effect of yogic exercises on physical and mental health of young fellowship course trainees. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2001;45(1):37-53.

28. Priori A, Berardelli A, Mercuri B, Inghilleri M, Manfredi M. The effect of hyperventilation on the motor cortical inhibition in humans: a study of the electromyographic silent period evoked by transcranial brain stimulation. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1995;97(1):69-72; doi:

29. Telles S, Desiraju T. Oxygen consumption during pranayamic type of very slow-rate breathing. Indian J Med Res. 1991;94:357-363.

Human Movement

The Journal of University School of Physical Education, Wroclaw

Journal Information

CiteScore 2016: 0.41

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.208
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.230


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 255 255 18
PDF Downloads 92 92 9