Variation in the Ace Gene in Elite Polish Football Players

Open access

Abstract

Purpose. A common polymorphism in the angiotensin converting enzyme I gene (the ACE I/D variant) represents one of the first characterized and the most widely studied genetic variants in the context of elite athletes status and performance related traits. The aim of the study was to determine the genotype and allele distribution of the allele and genotype of the ACE gene in Polish male football players. Methods. The total of 106 Polish male professional football players were recruited. They were divided into groups according to the position in the field: forwards, defenders, midfielders, and goalkeepers. For controls, samples were prepared with 115 unrelated volunteers. DNA was extracted from the buccal cells donated by the subjects, and the PCR amplification of the polymorphic region of the ACE gene containing either the insertion (I) or deletion (D) fragment was performed. Results. The genotype distribution and allele frequencies among all football players did not differ significantly when compared with sedentary control individuals (p = 0.887, p = 0.999, respectively). Likewise, the analysis of forwards, defenders, midfielders, and goalkeepers revealed no significant differences in either ACE genotype or allele frequencies. Conclusions. We did not provide evidence for difference of variation of the ACE I/D polymorphism between Polish football players and controls, as we did not obtain any statistically significantly higher frequency of either of the analysed alleles (I and D) or genotypes (DD, ID, and II) in the studied subgroups. It may be suspected that harbouring of I/D allelic variants of the ACE gene neither decreases nor increases the probability of being a professional football player in Poland.

1. Nikolaidis P., Anaerobic power across adolescence in soccer players. Hum Mov, 2011, 12 (4), 342-347, doi:

2. Nikolaidis P.T., Physical fitness in female soccer players by player position: a focus on anaerobic power. Hum Mov, 2014, 15 (2) 74-79, doi:

3. Gonçalves E., Gonzaga A.S., Cardoso F.S.L., Teoldo I., Anticipation in soccer: A systematic review. Hum Mov, 2015, 16 (2), 95-101, doi:

4. Coelho D.B., Pimenta E., Rosse I.C., Veneroso C., Pussieldi G., Becker L.K., et al., Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE-I/D) polymorphism frequency in Brazilian soccer players. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 2016, 41 (6), 692-694, doi:

5. Bangsbo J., Energy demands in competitive soccer. J Sports Sci, 1994, 12, S5-S12.

6. Shephard R.J., Biology and medicine of soccer: an update. J Sports Sci, 1999, 17 (10), 757-786, doi:

7. Ulucan K., Sercan C., Biyikli T., Distribution of angiotensin-1 converting enzyme insertion/deletion and -actinin-3 codon 577 polymorphisms in Turkish male soccer players. Genet Epigenet, 2015, 20 (7), 1-4, doi:

8. Macarthur D.G., North K.N., Genes and human elite athletic performance. Hum Genet, 2005, 116 (5), 331-339, doi:

9. Ostrander E.A., Huson H.J., Ostrander G.K., Genetics of athletic performance. Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet, 2009, 10, 407-429, doi:

10. Bray M.S., Hagberg J.M., Perusse L., Rankinen T., Roth S.M., Wolfarth B., et al., The human gene map for performance and health-related fitness phenotypes: the 2006-2007 update. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2009, 41 (1), 35-73, doi:

11. Ma F., Yang Y., Li X., Zhou F., Gao C., Li M., et al., The association of sport performance with ACE and ACTN3 genetic polymorphisms: a systematic review and metaanalysis. PLoS One, 2013, 8 (1), e54685, doi:

12. Rieder M.J., Taylor S.L., Clark A.G., Nickerson D.A., Sequence variation in the human angiotensin converting enzyme. Nat Genet, 1999, 22 (1), 59-62, doi:

13. Rigat B., Hubert C., Alhenc-Gelas F., Cambien F., Corvol P., Soubrier F., An insertion/deletion polymorphism in the angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene accounting for half the variance of serum enzyme levels. J Clin Invest, 1990, 86 (4), 1343-1346, doi:

14. Papadimitriou I., Lucia A., Pitsiladis Y., Pushkarev V., Dyatlov D., Orekhov E., et al., ACTN3 R577X and ACE I/D gene variants influence performance in elite sprinters: a multi-cohort study. BMC Genomics, 2016, 17, 285, doi:

15. Grenda A., Leońska-Duniec A., Kaczmarczyk M., Ficek K., Król P., Cięszczyk P., et al., Interaction between ACE I/D and ACTN3 R557X polymorphisms in Polish competitive swimmers. J Hum Kinet, 2014, 42, 127-136, doi:

16. Cięszczyk P., Maciejewska A., Sawczuk M., Ficek K., Eider J., Jascaniene J., The angiotensin converting enzyme gene I/D polymorphism in elite Polish and Lithuanian judo players. Biol Sport, 2010, 27 (2), 119-122.

17. Cięszczyk P., Krupecki K., Maciejewska A., Sawczuk M., The angiotensin converting enzyme gene I/D polymorphism in Polish rowers. Int J Sports Med, 2009, 30 (8), 624-627.

18. Oh S.D., The distribution of I/D polymorphism in the ACE gene among Korean male elite athletes. J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 2007, 47 (2), 250-254.

19. Gronek P., Holdys J., Konarski J., Kryściak J., Wolc A., ACE I/D genotype in professional field hockey players. Trends Sport Sci, 2013, 20 (1), 36-40.

20. Orysiak J., Zmijewski P., Klusiewicz A., Kaliszewski P., Malczewska-Lenczowska J., Gajewski J., et al., The association between ACE gene variation and aerobic capacity in winter endurance disciplines. Biol Sport, 2013, 30 (4), 249-253, doi:

21. Gineviciene V., Jakaitiene A., Tubelis L., Kucinskas V., Variation in the ACE, PPARGC1A and PPARA genes in Lithuanian football players. Eur J Sport Sci, 2014, 14, S289-S295, doi:

22. Juffer P., Furrer R., Gonzalez-Freire M., Santiago C., Verde Z., Serratosa L., et al., Genotype distributions in top-level soccer players: a role for ACE? Int J Sports Med, 2009, 30 (5), 387-392, doi:

23. Williams A.G., Wackerhage H., Day S.H., Genetic testing for sports performance, responses to training and injury risk: practical and ethical considerations. Med Sport Sci, 2016, 61, 105-119, doi:

24. Egorova E.S., Borisova A.V., Mustafina L.J., Arkhipova A., Gabbasov R.T., Druzhevskaya A.M., et al., The polygenic profile of Russian football players. J Sports Sci, 2014, 32 (13), 1286-1293, doi:

25. Massidda M., Corrias L., Scorcu M., Vona G., Calo M.C., ACTN-3 and ACE genotypes in elite male Italian athletes. Anthropol Rev, 2012, 75 (1), 51-59, doi:

26. Sawczuk M., Maciejewska A., Cięszczyk P., Eider J., The role of genetic research in sport. Sci Sports, 2011, 26 (5), 251-258, doi:

27. Gronek P., Holdys J., Genes and physical fitness. Trends Sport Sci, 2013, 20 (1), 16-29.

Human Movement

The Journal of University School of Physical Education, Wroclaw

Journal Information


CiteScore 2016: 0.41

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.208
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.230

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 169 169 17
PDF Downloads 87 87 9