Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine body image and body satisfaction in Polish adult men involved in resistance training and to investigate their relationships with objective anthropometric and training characteristics. Methods. The study included 176 males aged 18-31 years with 1-14 years resistance training experience. The Figure Rating Scale, Body Satisfaction Scale and a self-designed questionnaire were administered. Results. Approximately 62% of the participants would like to be more muscular, only 29% accepted their appearance and 9% would like to be less muscular. The body selected as the personal ideal (M = 5.34) was less muscular than the body considered by the participants to be ideal by other men (normative body; M = 6.07) and was more muscular than the body thought to be most attractive to women (M = 5.10). Actual and ideal body muscularity correlated positively with age and body mass, height and BMI. Dissatisfaction with trunk and motor characteristics correlated positively with ideal body and the body considered most attractive to women as well as with the discrepancy indices between the above factors and the actual body. Conclusions. Men regularly involved in resistance training were found to strive for a muscular physique. The normative body, the physique believed to be desired by other men, was more muscular than what was considered preferential to women. However, the latter constitutes a stronger determinant of the level of body satisfaction in men engaged in resistance training.
1. Adams G., Turner H., Bucks R., The experience of body dissatisfaction in men. Body Image, 2005, 2 (3), 271-283, doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2005.05.004.
2. Garner D.M., The 1997 Body Image Survey results. Psychol Today, 1997, 30, 30-44, 75, 76, 78, 84.
3. Schooler D., Ward L.M., Average Joes: Men’s relationships with media, real bodies, and sexuality. Psychol Men Masculinity, 2006, 7 (1), 27-41, doi: 10.1037/1524-9220.127.116.11.
4. Frederick D.A., Fessler D.M.T., Haselton M.G., Do representations of male muscularity differ in men’s and women’s magazines. Body Image, 2005, 2 (1), 81-86, doi: 101016/j.bodyim.2004.12.002.
5. Goldfield G.S., Blouin A.G., Woodside D.B., Body image, binge eating, and bulimia nervosa in male bodybuilders.Can J Psychiat, 2006, 51 (3), 160-168.
6. Miller E., Halberstadt J., Media consumption, body image, and thin ideals in New Zealand men and women. New Zealand J Psychol, 2005, 34 (3), 189-195.
7. Xie B., Chou C.-P., Spruijt-Metz D., Reynolds K., Clark F., Palmer P.H. et al., Weight peception and weight-related sociocultural and behavioral factors in Chinese adolescents. Prev Med, 2006, 42 (3), 229-234, doi:10.1016/j. ypmed.2005.12.013.
8. McCabe M.P, Ricciardelli L.A., Body image dissatisfaction among males across the lifespan: a review of past literature. J Psychosom Res, 2004, 56 (6), 675-685, doi: 10.1016/S0022-3999(03)00129-6.
9. McCreary D., Sadava S., Gender differences in relationships among perceived attractiveness, life satisfaction, and health in adult as a function of body mass index and perceived weight. Psychol Men Masculinity, 2001, 2 (2), 108-116.
10. Leone J.E., Sedory E.J., Gray K.A., Recognition and treatment of muscle dysmorphia and related body image disorders. J Athl Train, 2005, 40 (4), 352-359.
11. Baghurst T., Hollander D.B., Nardella B., Haff C.G., Change in sociocultural ideal male physique: An examination of past and present action figures. Body Image, 2006, 3 (1), 87-91, doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2005.11.001.
12. Frederick D.A., Buchanan G.M., Sadeghi-Azar L., Peplau L.A., Haselton M.G., Brezovskaya A. et al., Desiring the muscular ideal: Men’s body satisfaction in the United States, Ukraine, and Ghana. Psychol Men Masculinity, 2007, 8 (2), 103-117, doi: 10.1037/1524-918.104.22.168.
13. Pope Jr. H.G., Gruber A.J., Choi P., Olivardia R., Phillips K.A. Muscle dysmorphia: An underrecognized form of body dysmorphic disorder. Psychosomatics, 1997, 38 (6), 548-557, doi: 10.1016/s0033-3182(97)71400-2.
14. Grieve F.G., A conceptual model of factors contributing to development of muscle dysmorphia. Eat Disord, 2007, 15 (1), 63-80, doi: 10.1080/10640260601044535.
15. Mangweth B., Pope H.G., Kemmler G., Ebenbichler C., Hausmann A., De Col C. et al., Body image and psychopathology in male bodybuilders. Psychother Psychosom, 2001, 70 (1), 38-43, doi: 10.1159/000056223.
16. Anderson S.L., Zager K., Hetzler R.K., Nahikian-Nelms M., Syler G., Comparison of Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2) scores of male bodybuilders to the male college student subgroup. Int J Sport Nutr, 1996, 6 (3), 255-262.
17. Pickett T.C., Lewis R.J., Cash T.F., Men, muscles, and body image: comparison of competitive bodybuilders, weight trainers, and athletically active controls. Br J Sports Med, 2005, 39 (4), 217-222, doi: 10.1136/bjsm.2004.012013.
18. Santernecchi E., Dettore D., Muscle dysmorphia in different degrees of bodybuilding activities: Validation of the Italian version of Muscle Dysmorphia Disorder Inventory and Bodybuilder Image Grid. Body Image, 2012, 9 (3), 396-403, doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2012.03.006.
19. Murray S.B., Rieger E., Touyz S.W., De la Garza Garcia Y.L., Muscle dysmorphia and the DSM-V conundrum: where does it belong? A review paper. Int J Eat Disord, 2010, 43 (6), 483-491, doi: 10.1002/eat.20828.
20. Nieuwoudt J.E., Zhou S., Coutts R.A., Booker R., Muscle dysmorphia: Current research and potential classification as a disorder. Psychol Sport Exerc, 2012, 13 (5), 569-577, doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2012.03.006.
21. Goodale K.R., Watkins P.L., Cardinal B.J., Muscle dysmorphia: a new form of eating disorder? Am J Health Educ, 2001,32(5), 260-266, doi: 10.1080/ 19325037.2001.10603480.
22. Daniel S., Bridges S.K., The drive for muscularity in men: Media influences and objectification theory. Body Image, 2010, 7 (1), 32-38, doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim. 2009.08.003.
23. Stunkard A.J, Sorenson T., Schlusinger F., Use of Danish adoption registers for the study of obesity and thinness. In: Kety S.S., Rowland L.P., Sidman R.L., Mathysse S.W. (eds.), The genetics of neurological and psychological disorders. Raven Press, New York 1983, 115-120.
24. Slade P.D., Dewey M.E., Newton T., Brodie D., Kiemle G., Development and preliminary validation of the body satisfaction scale (BSS ). Psychol Health, 1990, 4 (3), 213-220.
25. Ochner C.N., Gray J.A., Brickner K., The development and initial validation of a new measure of male body dissatisfaction. Eat Behav, 2009, 10 (4), 197-201, doi: 10.1016/j. eatbeh.2009.06.002.
26. Olivardia R., Pope Jr. H.G., Borowiecki J.J., Cohane G.H., Biceps and body image: The relationships between muscularity and self-esteem, depression and eating disorder symptoms. Psychol Men Muscularity, 2004, 5 (2), 112-120, doi: 10.1037/1524-922.214.171.124.
27. Babusa B., Urban R., Czegledi E., Tury F., Psychometric properties and construct validity of the Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale among Hungarian men. Body Image, 2012, 9 (1), 155-162, doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2011.08.005.
28. Gonzales-Marti I., Bustos J.G.F., Jordan O.R.C., Mayville S.B., Validation of a Spanish version of the Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale: Escala de Satisfaccion Muscular. Body Image, 2012, 9 (4), 517-523, doi: 10.1016/j. bodyim.2012.05.002.
29. Tylka T.L., Refinement of the tripartite influence model of men: Dual body image pathways to body change behaviors. Body Image, 2011, 8 (3), 199-207, doi: 10.1016/j. bodyim.2011.04.008.
30. Morrison T.G., Morrison M.A., Hopkins C., Striving for bodily perfection? An exploration of the drive for muscularity in Canadian men. Psychol Men Masculinity, 2003, 4 (2), 111-120, doi: 10.1037/1524-9126.96.36.199.
31. Lorenzen L.A., Grieve F.G., Thomas A., Exposure to muscular male models decreases men’s body satisfaction. Sex Roles, 2004, 51 (11-12), 743-748, doi: 10.1007/s11199-004-0723-0.
32. Leit R.A., Gray J.J., Pope Jr H.G., The media’s representation of the ideal male body: A cause of muscle dysmorphia? Int J Eat Disord, 2002, 31 (3), 334-338, doi: 10.1002/eat.10019.
33. Bartlett C.P., Vowels C.L., Saucier D.A., Meta-analyses of the effects of media images on men’s body-image concerns. J Soc Clin Psychol, 2008, 27 (3), 279-310, doi: 10.1521/ jscp.2008.27.3.279.
34. Blond A., Impacts of exposure to images of ideal bodies on male body dissatisfaction: A review. Body Image, 2008, 5 (3), 244-250, doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2008.02.003.
35. Halliwell E., Dittmar H., Orsborn A., The effect of exposure to muscular male models among men: Exploring the moderating role of gym use and exercise motivation. Body Image, 2007, 4 (3), 278-287, doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2007.04.006.
36. Rossi B., Zoccolotti P., Body perception in athletes and nonathletes.Percept Mot Skills, 1979, 49 (3), 723-726, doi: 10.2466/pms.19188.8.131.523.