Selected Psychological Determinants of Sports Results in Senior Fencers
Purpose. The aim of the present study was to determine the correlations between the strength of the stimulation process, mobility of nervous processes, achievement motivation and sports results of fencers in the senior age category. Methods. The sample was comprised of 38 senior fencers (19 men and 19 women) aged 21-32 years. The strength of the stimulation process and mobility of nervous processes were assessed with the Strelau and Zawadzki PTS inventory. The subjects' achievement motivation was measured with the achievement motivation questionnaire by Widerszal-B azyl. Results. The study revealed that senior fencers (women, in particular) featured higher mean levels of the examined psychological determinants, i.e., strength of the stimulation process, mobility of nervous processes and achievement motivation than the general population in the same age range. Strong and statistically significant correlations were found between all the studied psychological determinants and sports results among the male fencers in the sample. In the group of female fencers none of the correlations were statistically significant. Conclusions. The results might provoke reflection on the role of coaches and, consequently, may have implications for the cooperation between coaches and athletes, indicating that the individual psychological differences of fencers should be considered during training. The coach may also decide on the necessity for considering on the reported diversification within the gender or age domain, and the need to consider such psychological properties as temperamental characteristics or the level of achievement motivation.
Keegan R., Spray Ch., Harwood Ch., Lavallee D., The motivational atmosphere in youth sport: coach, parent, and peer influences on motivation in specializing sport participants. J Appl Sport Psychol, 2010, 22 (1), 87-105, doi: 10.1080/10413200903421267.
Mann D. T., Williams A. M., Ward P., Janelle C. M., Perceptual-cognitive expertise in sport: a meta-analysis. J Sport Exerc Psychol, 2007, 29 (4), 457-478.
Kipp L., Amorose A. J., Perceived Motivational Climate and Self Determined Motivation in Female High School Athletes. J Sport Behav, 2008, 31 (2), 108-129.
Hodge K., Allen J. B., Smellie L., Motivation in Masters sport: Achievement and social goals. Psychol Sport Exerc, 2008, 9 (2), 157-176, doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2007.03.002.
Brzeziński J., Methodology of psychological research [in Polish]. PWN, Warszawa 1996.
Williams J. M., Hoepner B. J., Moody D. L., Ogilvie B. C., Personality traits of champion level female fencers. Res Q, 1970, 41, 446-453.
Bandach L., Personality conditions of the combat style in foil fencing [in Polish]. Sport Wyczynowy, 1997, 3-4, 33-39.
Gracz J., Tomczak M., Selected temperamental properties and achievement motivation of fencers. Studies in Physical Culture and Tourism, 2008, 15 (2), 109-118.
Tomczak M., Psychosocial conditionings of individual development in sport in adolescence: The case of fencing [in Polish]. Monografie AWF w Poznaniu, 2010, 392.
Bukowska K., Zgadzaj R., Comparative analysis of the temperament of Hess and football players against a background of the general population. Hum Mov, 2007, 8 (2), 89-97.
O'Sullivan D., Zuckerman M., Kraft M., Personality characteristics of male and female participants in team sports. Pers Indiv Differ, 1998, 25, 119-128.
Han D. H., Kim J. H., Lee Y. S., Bae S.Jo., Bae S.Ji., Kim H. J. et al., Influence of temperament and anxiety on athletic performance. J Sport Sci Med, 2006, 5, 381-389.
Malinauskas R., Peculiarities of emotional states of sportsmen in cyclic sports. Int J Sport Psychol, 2003, 34 (4), 289-298.
Etnier J. L., Sidman C. L., Hancock L. C., An examination of goal orientation profiles and motivation in adult team sport. Int J Sport Psychol, 2004, 35 (3), 173-188.
Krawczyński M., Personality anxiety and achievement motivation in football. In: Mikołajczyk M. (ed.), Psychological correlates of physical activity and success in sport [in Polish]. PTNKF, Warszawa 2004, 57-63.
LaChausse R. G., Motives of competitive and non-competitive cyclists. J Sport Behav, 2006, 29 (4), 304-314.
Petherick C. M., Weigand D. A., The relationship of dispositional goal orientations and perceived motivational climates on indices of motivation in male and female swimmers. Int J Sport Psychol, 2002, 33 (2), 218-237.
Borysiuk Z., Psychomotor and personality determinants of the champion's level in fencing [in Polish]. Studia i Monografie Politechniki Opolskiej, 2002, 127.
Borysiuk Z., Complex evaluation of fencers predisposition in three stages of sport development. Biol Sport, 2006, 23 (1), 41-53.
Rychta T., Goal behavior and sportsmen' personality. In: T. Rychta (ed.), Goal behavior and personality in sport [in Polish]. PTNKF, Warszawa 1998, 54-96.
Czajkowski Z., Understanding fencing. The unity of theory and practice, SKA SwordPlay Books, Staten Island 2005.
Czajkowski Z., The "warrior" and "technician" types of fencers. Hum Mov, 2004, 5 (2), 141-147.
Roi G. S., Bianchedi D., The science of fencing: Implications for performance and injury prevention. Sports Med, 2008, 38 (6), 465-480, doi: 10.2165/00007256-200838060-00003.
Best D. L., Williams J. E., Briggs S. R., A further analysis of the affective meanings associated with male and female gender-trait stereotypes. Gender Roles, 1980, 6 (5), 735-746, doi: 10.1007/BF00287493.
Archer J., Gender differences in social behavior: Are the social role and evolutionary explanations compatible? Am Psychol, 1996, 51 (9), 909-917, doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.51.9.909.