Purpose. The aim of this study was to define the relationship between gender identity, the perception of the body, depressiveness, and aggression in female football players who represent different levels of competence (playing in the premier league vs. second league) and seniority in sport. Methods. Research was carried out on female football players (aged 16-31 years) playing in the premier league (N = 49) and second league (N = 45). Data were obtained with the use of: the Body Image Evaluation Questionnaire by Mandal, developed on the basis of Franzoi's concepts; Kuczyńska's Gender Assessment Inventory (IPP) adapted from the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI), which diversifies individuals in terms of their gender identity in accordance to the Gender Schema Theory by Bem; the Beck Depression Inventory, translated by Lewicka and Czapiński; and the Buss-Durkee Inventory, adapted by Kosewski with comments from Stanik. To find a relationship between the mentioned variables, statistical analysis was carried out by use of ANOVA, the t test, the χ2 test and correlation coefficients. Results. The obtained research results indicate that, among female football players, the following occurs: a predominance of androgynous gender identities and a deficiency of its other types, a higher level of masculinity than among non-training women, a more favorable perception of body-as-process, a higher evaluation of body-as-object, along with an increase of masculinity and a decrease in indirect aggression at higher competition levels. Conclusions. The application of the masculinity dimension by female football players with androgynous gender identity is probably an effective strategy for survival in conditions that are unsuitable and gender-inappropriate in typical masculine sports.
Dziekanowska M., Male gender in the sociological perspective. In: Radomski A., Trucholińska B. (eds.), Masculinity in contemporary culture [in Polish]. UMCS, Lublin 2008, 58-65.
Bem S. L., Gender schema theory: Cognitive account of sex typing. Psychol Rev, 1981, 88 (4), 354-336, doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.88.4.354.
Kuczyńska A., Gender Evaluation Inventory. Handbook [in Polish]. Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych PTP, Warszawa 1992.
Koivula N., Ratings of gender appropriateness of sports participation: Effects of gender-based schematic processing. Sex Roles, 1995, 33 (7-8), 543-557, doi: 10.1007/BF01544679.
Kłodecka-Różalska J., Psychological potential of femininity and masculinity vs. prospects of success in sport [in Polish]. Sport Wyczynowy, 1998, 9-10, 405-406.
Myers M. A., Lips H. M., Participation in competitive amateur sports as a function of psychological androgyny. Sex Roles, 1978, 4 (4), 571-578, doi: 10.1007/BF00287201.
Salaminen S., Sex role and participation in traditionally inappropriate sports. Percept Mot Skills, 1990, 71 (3), 1216-1218, doi: 10.2466/pms.1990.71.3f.1216.
Matteo S., The effect of sex and gender-schematic processing on sport participation. Sex Roles, 1986, 15 (7-8), 417-432, doi: 10.1007/BF00287981.
Mroczkowska H., Psychological gender of women in gender-inappropriate sports tasks [in Polish]. Wychowanie Fizyczne i Sport, 2003, 47, 321-328.
Guillet E., Sarrazin P., Fontayne P., "If it contradicts my gender role, I'll stop!" Introducing survival analysis to study the effects of gender typing in the time of withdrawal from sport practice: a 3-year study. Eur Rev Appl Psychol, 2000, 50 (4), 417-421.
Giuliano T. A., Popp K. E., Knight J. L., Footballs vs. Barbies: Childhood play activities as predictors of sport participation by women. Sex Roles, 2000, 42 (3-4), 159-181, doi: 10.1023/A:1007035122089.
Bailey J. M., Bechtold K. T., Berenbaum S. A., Who are tomboys and why should we study them? Arch Sex Behav, 2002, 31 (4), 333-341, doi: 10.1023/A:1016272209463.
Mandal E., Gawor A., Buczny J., Content and hierarchical structure of Polish man and Polish woman stereotypes. In: Chybicka A., Kosakowska-Berezecka N. (eds.), Between sex and gender - theories, research, applications [in Polish]. Impuls, Kraków 2010, 13-30.
Starosta W., In search for justification of the division of sport disciplines into masculine and feminine. In: Kłodecka-Różalska J. (ed.), A female athlete a woman of Success… Advantages and barriers of women's sport activities [in Polish]. Polskie Stowarzyszenie Sportu Kobiet, Instytut Sportu w Warszawie, Warszawa 2003, 205-216.
Pacut A., Sense of gender identity in women and a sports discipline practised by them [in Polish]. Sport Wyczynowy, 2006, 3-4, 35-39.
Chalabaev A., Sarrazin P., Fontayne P., Stereotype endorsement and perceived ability as mediators of the girls' gender orientation-soccer performance relationship. Psychol Sport Exerc, 2009, 10 (2), 297-299, doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2008.08.002.
Szmajke A., Adamczuk A., Self-assessment, aggressiveness level and gender identity [in Polish]. Trening, 1993, 4, 117-126.
Kuczyńska A., Psychological sex: tool of measurement, it's theory and empirical data [in Polish]. Przegląd Psychologiczny, 1992, 2, 237-247.
Cynarski W. J., Problem of aggression in sport on the example of chosen team games and martial sports [in Polish]. Studia Humanistyczne, 2000, 2, 99-114.
Szmajke A., Machera K., Sport as a social enclave of the culture of honor [in Polish]. Hum Mov, 2003, 1 (7), 13-15.
Terelak F. J., Siołkowska M., Gender vs. aggressiveness in women playing team games [in Polish]. Kultura Fizyczna, 2008, 7-8, 1-11.
Kavussanu M., Stamp R., Slade G., Ring Ch., Observed prosocial and antisocial behaviors in male and female soccer players. J Appl Sport Psychol, 2009, 21 (Suppl. 1), S62-S76, doi: 10.1080/10413200802624292.
Derbis R., Jędrek K., Sense of quality of life and personality of individual and team sportsmen [in Polish]. Przegląd Psychologiczny, 2010, 53 (1), 9-32.
Żukowski N., The attitude of optima outward aggression as natural component of sport rivalry [in Polish]. Sport Wyczynowy, 2007, 7-9, 104-113.
Kłodecka-Różalska J., They lacked sport aggression? [in Polish]. Sport Wyczynowy, 2007, 1-3, 45-49.
Galasiński D., Men's discourses of depression. Palgrave Macmillan, New York 2008.
Appaneal R. N., Levine B. R., Perna F. M., Roh J. L., Measuring postinjury depression among male and female competitive athletes. J Sport Exerc Psychol, 2009, 31 (1), 60-76.
Franzoi S. L., The body-as-object versus the body-as-process: gender differences and gender considerations. Sex Roles, 1995, 33 (5-6), 417-437, doi: 10.1007/BF01954577.
Pelegrini A., Petroski E. L., The association between body dissatisfaction and nutritional status in adolescents. Hum Mov, 2010, 1 (1), 51-57, doi: 10.2478/v10038-010-0001-7.
Mandal E., Body-as-process versus body-as-object, body image in students of the Academy of Physical Education and University students [in Polish]. Czasopismo Psychologiczne, 2004, 1, 35-47.
Czapiński J., Psychology of Happiness. Review of studies and outline of the Onion Theory [in Polish]. Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych PTP, Warszawa 1994.
Stanik J. M., Roszkowska A., Kucharewicz J., Psychological diagnosis of aggressive behaviors in the light of tests based on Buss-Durkee Scale (SABD) - research results and test normalization. In: Stanik J. M. (ed.), Application of selected diagnostic techniques in psychological clinical and forensic practice [in Polish]. UŚ, Katowice 2006, 81-100.
Korzeń R., New information about a psychometric properties of the Polish version Bem Sex Role Inventory - called IPP in Polish [in Polish]. Stud Psychol, 2005, 6, 37-50.
Mroczkowska H., Cultural gender schemes vs. emotional parameters of men and women functioning in professional athletics. Biol Sport, 2005, 22 (3), 271-279.
Gilenstam K., Karp S., Henriksson-Larsen K., Gender in ice hockey: women in a male territory. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 2008, 18 (2), 235-249, doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2007.00665.x.
Dakowicz A., Gender vs. Self-actualization level [in Polish]. Trans Humana, Białystok 2000.
Terelak J. F., Kluczyńska S., Psychological sex and stress coping strategies among women - victims of their partner' violence [in Polish]. Przegląd Psychologiczny, 2007, 1, 45-64.
Korzeń R., Correlations between temperament and biological sex and gender schema [in Polish]. Stud Psychol, 2007, 7, 169-180.
Lachowicz-Tabaczek K., Reasons and manifestations of "inequality" in self-esteem of man and women [in Polish]. Czasopismo Psychologiczne, 2000, 1-2, 63-75.
Turosz M. A., Storto M., Profile and structure of personality, aggression and sports motivation of representatives of Poland in football [in Polish]. Sport Wyczynowy, 2002, 7-8, 451-452.
Szmajke A., Gorajczyk M., Sports atmosphere: seniority in sport vs. readiness for aggression and effectiveness in the game in women playing basketball. In: Wlazło E. (ed.), The psychology of the sports group [in Polish]. Studia i Monografie AWF we Wrocławiu, 2003, 69, 155-179.
Thøgersen-Ntoumani C., Ntoumanis N., Cumming J., Bartholomew K. J., Pearce G., Can self-esteem protect against the deleterious consequences of self-objectification for mood and body satisfaction in physically active female university students? J Sport Exerc Psychol, 2011, 33 (2), 289-307.