The influence of different hand paddle size on 100-m front crawl kinematics

Open access

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of different sizes of hand paddles on kinematic parameters during a 100 m freestyle swimming performance in elite swimmers. Nine elite swimmers (19.1 ± 1.9 years) completed three tests of 100 m without paddles, with small paddles (271.27 cm2) and with large paddles (332.67 cm2), respectively. One video camera was used to record the performance during the three trials. The mean swimming velocity, stroke rate and stroke length were measured in the central 10 meters of each 50 m length. The results showed that stroke length tended to increase significantly when wearing hand paddles (p < 0.05) during both the first and second 50 m sections whereas the increase in swimming velocity occurred only in the second 50 m (p < 0.05). Conversely, the stroke rate showed a slight decreasing trend with increasing paddle size. During the 100 m freestyle trial the stroke kinematics were changed significantly as a result of the increase in propelling surface size when hand paddles were worn.

Arellano R, Brown P, Cappaert J, Nelson RC. Analysis of 50-, 100-, and 200-m freestyle swimmers at the 1992 Olympic Games. J Appl Biomech, 1994; 10: 189-199

Craig AB, Pendergast DR. Relationships of the stroke rate, distance per stroke, and velocity in competitive swimming. Med Sci Sport Exer, 1979; 11: 278-283

Craig AB, Skehan PL, Pawelczyk JA, Boomer WL. Velocity, stroke rate, and distance per stroke during elite swimming competition. Med Sci Sport Exer, 1985; 17: 625-634

Chollet D, Chalies S, Chatard JC. A new index of coordination for the crawl: Description and usefulness. Int J Sports Med, 2000; 21: 54-59

East DJ. Stroke frecuency, length and performance. Swimming Technique, 1971; 8: 68-73

Gourgoulis V, Aggeloussis N, Kasimatis P, Vezos N, Antoniou P, Mavromatis G. The influence of hand paddles on the arm coordination in female front crawl swimmers. J Strength Cond Res, 2009; 23: 735-740

Gourgoulis V, Aggeloussis N, Vezos N, Antoniou P, Mavromatis G. Hand orientation in hand paddle swimming. Int J Sports Med, 2008a; 29: 429-434

Gourgoulis V, Aggeloussis N, Vezos N, Mavromatis G. Effect of two different sized hand paddles on the front crawl stroke kinematics. J Sport Med Phys Fit, 2006; 46: 232-237

Gourgoulis V, Antoniou P, Aggeloussis N. Kinematic characteristics of the stroke and orientation of the hand during front crawl resisted swimming. J Sport Sci, 2010; 28: 1165-1173

Gourgoullis V, Aggeloussis N, Vezos N, Kasimatis P, Antoniou P, Mavromatis G. Estimation of hand forces and propelling efficiency during front crawl swimming with hand paddles. J Biomech, 2008b; 41: 208-215

Keskinen K, Tilli LJ, Komi P. Maximum velocity swimming: interrelationships of stroking characteristics, force production and anthropometric variables. Scan J Sport Sci, 1989; 11: 87-92

Keskinen KL, Komi PV. Stroking characteristics of front crawl swimming during exercise. J Appl Biomech, 1993; 9: 219-226

Lauder MA, Newell R. Asymmetry in front crawl swimming with and without hand paddles. ISBS -XXVII International Conference on Biomechanics in Sports, 2009. Available at: . de/cpa/article/view/3398; accessed on 16.12.2010

Llop F, Arellano R, González C, Navarro F, García JM. Variations in front crawl technique during resistance swimming with parachutes. Motricidad, 2002; 8: 7-20

Maglischo EW. Swimming fastest. Human Kinetics. Champaign, IL, 2003

Payton CJ, Lauder MA. The influence of Hand paddles on the kinematics of front crawl swimming. J Hum Movement Stud, 1995; 28: 175-192

Strzała M, Tyka A, Krężałek P. Physical endurance and swimming technique in 400 meters front crawl race. Journal of Human Kinetics, 2007; 18: 73-86

Telles T, Barbosa AC, Campos MH, Andries O. Effect of hand paddles and parachute on the index of coordination of competitive crawl-strokers. J Sport Sci, 2011; 29: 431-438

Toussaint HB. Differences in propelling efficiency between competitive and triathlon swimmers. Med Sci Sport Exer, 1990; 22: 409-415

Toussaint HB, Beek PJ. Biomechanics of competitive front crawl swimming. Sports Med, 1992; 1: 8-24

Toussaint HB, Janssen T, Kluft M. Effect of propelling surface size on the mechanics and energetics of front crawl swimming. J Biomech, 1991; 24: 205-211

Journal of Human Kinetics

The Journal of Academy of Physical Education in Katowice

Journal Information


IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 1,414
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 1,858

CiteScore 2018: 1.60

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.644
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.941

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 145 97 3
PDF Downloads 84 70 7